Surface Properties of Particles Emitted from Selected Coal-Fired Heating Plants and Electric Power Stations in Poland: Preliminary Results

Open access


The surface properties of particles emitted from six selected coal-fired power and heating plants in Poland have been studied in this work for the first time. Samples were collected beyond the control systems. Surface composition of the size-distributed particles was obtained by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

The reflection of the smallest, submicron particles was also measured to calculate their specific/mass absorption. The surface layer of the emitted particles was clearly dominated by oxygen, followed by silicon and carbon. The sum of the relative concentration of these elements was between 85.1% and 91.1% for coarse particles and 71.8–93.4% for fine/submicron particles. Aluminum was typically the fourth or fifth, or at least the sixth most common element. The mass absorption of the submicron particles emitted from the studied plants ranged from 0.02 m2g-1 to 0.03 m2g-1. Only specific absorption obtained for the “Nowy Wirek” heating plant was significantly higher than in other studied plants probably because the obsolete fire grate is used in this heating plant.

The obtained results suggest that the power/heating-plant-emitted fine particles contain less carbonaceous material/elemental carbon on their surfaces than those that are typical in urban air.

[1] Pope, C.A., Dockery, D.W. & Schwartz, J. (1995). Review of epidemiologic evidence of health effects of particulate air pollution, Inhalation Toxicology, 7, 1–18.

[2] Chapman, R.S., Watkinson, W.P., Dreher, K.L. & Costa, D.L. (1997). Ambient particulate matter and respiratory and cardiovascular illness in adults: Particle borne transition metals and the heart-lung axis, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 4, 331–338.

[3] Zejda, J.E. (2001). Incidence of children respiratory diseases and air pollution – an attempt to assess the problem in Katowice agglomeration (in Polish), Environmental Medicine,4, 5–11.

[4] Alvim-Ferraz, M.C., Pereira, M.C., Ferraz, J.M., Almeida e Mello, A.M.C., Martins, F.G. (2005). European directives for air quality: analysis of the new limits in comparison with asthmatic symptoms in children living in the Oporto Metropolitan area, Portugal, Human Ecology and Risk Assessment, 11, 607–616.

[5] Dockery, D.W., Pope II, I. C.A., Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware, J.H., Fay, M.E., Ferris, B.G. & Speizer,

F.E. (1993). An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities, New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1753–1759.

[6] Samet, J.M., Dominici, F., Curriero, F.C., Coursac, I. & Zeger, S.L. (2000). Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 US cities, 1987–1994, New England Journal of Medicine, 343, 1742–1749.

[7] Central Statistic Offi ce, (2006). Polish Statistical Yearbook, (in Polish), Warsaw, Poland.

[8] Wrobel, A., Rokita, E. & Maenhaut, W., (2000). Transport of traffic-related aerosols in urban.

[9] Grynkiewicz-Bylina, B., Rakwic, B. & Pastuszka, J.S. (2005). Assessment of exposure to traffic-related aerosol and to particle-associated PAHs, in Gliwice, Upper Silesia, Poland, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 14, 117–123.

[10] Pastuszka, J.S., Rogula-Kozłowska, W. & Zajusz-Zubek, E. (2010). Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 and associated heavy metals at the crossroads and urban background site in Zabrze, Upper Silesia, Poland, during the smog episodes, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 168, 613–627.

[11] Flagan, R.C. & Seinfeld, J.H. (1988). Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1988.

[12] Valmari, T., Kauppinen, E.I., Kurkela, J., Jokiniemi, J.K., Sfiris, G. & Revitzer, H.. 1998). Fly ash formation and deposition during fluidized bed combustion of willow, Journal of Aerosol Science, 29, 445–459.

[13] Raask, E. (1985). Mineral Impurities in Coal Combustion, Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1985.

[14] Roesner, D.E. (1986). Transport Processes in Chemically Reacting Flow Systems., Butterworth-Heinemann, London, 1986.

[15] Baxter, L.L. (1993). Ash deposition during biomass and coal combustion: A mechanistic approach, Biomass and Bioenergy, 4, 85–102.

[16] Konieczyński, J. & Komosiński, B. (2007). Measurements and investigations of emission of dust and gaseous pollutants from circulating fluidized bed boilers, Archives of Environmental Protection, 33, 3–13.

[17] Kozielska, B. & Konieczyński, J. (2007). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust emitted from stokerfi red boilers, Environmental Technology, 28, 895–903.

[18] Kozielska, B. & Konieczyński, J. (2008). Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust emitted from circulating fluidized bed boilers, Environmental Technology, 29, 1199–1207.

[19] Grochowalski, A. & Konieczyński, J. (2008). PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers, Chemosphere, 73, 97–103.

[20] Kostakis, G. (2011). Mineralogical composition of boiler fouling and slagging deposits and their relation to fly ashes: The case of Kardia power plant, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 185, 1012–1018.

[21] Hutton, B.M. & Williams, D.E. (2000). Assessment of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for analysis of particulate pollutants in urban air, Analyst, 125, 1703–1706.

[22] Kendall, M., Hutton, B.M., Tetley, T.D., Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., Wigzell, E. & Jones, F.H. (2001). Investigation of fine atmospheric particle surfaces and lining fluid interaction using XPS, Applied Surface Science, 178, 27–36.

[23] Zhu, Y.J., Olson, N. & Beebe Jr., T.P. (2001). Surface chemical characterization of 2.5 μm particulates (PM2.5) from air pollution in Salt Lake City using TOF-SIMS, XPS, and FTIR, Environmental Science and Technology, 35, 3113–3121.

[24] Paoletti, L., de Berardis, B., Arrizza, L., Passcantando, M., Inglessis, M. & Mosca, M. (2003). Seasonal effects on the physical-chemical characteristics of PM2.1 in Rome: study by SEM and XPS, Atmospheric Environment, 37, 4869–7879.

[25] Pastuszka, J.S., Wawroś, A., Talik, E. & Paw U, K.T. (2003). Optical and chemical characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol in four towns in southern Poland, The Science of the Total Environment, 309, 237–251.

[26] Wawroś, A., Talik, E. & Pastuszka, J.S. (2003). Investigation of winter atmospheric aerosol particles in downtown Katowice using XPS and SEM, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 9, 349–358.

[27] Qi, J., Feng, L., Li, X. & Zhang, M. (2006). An X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy study of elements on the surface of aerosol particles, Journal of Aerosol Science, 37, 218–227.

[28] Moulder, J.F., Stickle, W.F., Sobol, P.E. & Blomben, K.D. (1995). Handbook of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, A Reference Book of Standard Spectra for Identification and Interpretation of XPS Data, Physical Electronics, Inc., USA, 1995.

[29] ISO, Ambient air-determination of a black smoke index, ISO 9835, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1993.

[30] Knapp, K.T. & Bennett, R.L. (1990). Procedures for chemical characterization of sized particles in stationary source emissions, Aerosol Science and Technology, 12, 1067–1074.

[31] Querol, X., Alastuey, A. Lopez-Soler, A., Mantilla, E. & Plana, F. (1996). Mineral composition of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station, Atmospheric Environment, 30, 3557–3572.

[32] Henry, W.M. & Knapp, K.T. (1980). Compounds forms of fossil fuel fly ash emission, Environmental Science and Technology, 14, 450–456.

[33] Klein, D.H., Andren, A.W., Carter, J.A., Emery, J.F., Feldman, C., Fulkerson, W., Lyon, W.S., Ogle, J.C., Talmi, Y., Van Hook, R.I. & Bolton, N. (1975). Pathways of thirty-seven trace elements through coal-fired power plant, Environmental Science and Technology, 9, 973–979.

[34] Coles, D.G., Ragaini, R.C., Ondov, J.M., Fisher, G.L., Silberman, D. & Prentice, B.A. (1979). Chemical studies of stack fly ash from a coal-fired power plant, Environmental Science and Technology, 13, 455–459.

[35] Wawros, A., Talik, E. & Pastuszka, J.S. (2001). Investigations of aerosols from Swietochlowice, Pszczyna and Kielce by XPS method, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 328, 171–174.

[36] Klejnowski, K., Pastuszka, J.S., Rogula-Kozłowska, W., Talik, E. & Krasa, A. (2012). Mass size distribution and chemical composition of the surface layer of summer and winter airborne particles in Zabrze, Poland, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88, 255–259.

[37] Junninen, H., Mønster, J., Rey, M., Cancelinha, J., Douglas, K., Duane, M., Forcina, V., Müller, A., Lagler, F., Marelli, L., Borowiak, A., Niedzialek, J., Paradiz, B., Mira-Salama, D., Jimenez, J., Hansen, U., Astorga, C., Stanczyk, K., Viana, M., Querol, X., Duvall, R.M., Norris, G.A., Tsakovski, S., Wåhlin, P., Horák, J. & Larsen, B.R. (2009). Quantifying the impact of residential heating on the urban air quality in a typical European coal combustion region, Environmental Science and Technology, 43, 7964–7970.

[38] Okada, K. (1985). Number-size distribution and formation process of submicrometer sulfate-containing particles in the urban atmosphere in Nagoya, Atmospheric Environment, 19, 747–757.

[39] Horvath, H., Alados, L., Olmo, F., Jovanovic, O., Gangi, M., Kaller, W. & Sanchez, L. (2000). Optical characteristics of the aerosol in Austria and Spain, Journal of Aerosol Science, 30, Suppl. 1, 644–645.

[40] Chou, C.C-K., Chen, W.-N., Chang, S.-W., Cheng, S.-Y. & Chen, T.-K. (2005). Specifi c absorption cross-section and elemental carbon content of urban aerosols, Geophysical Research Letters, 32, 1–4.

[41] Hogan, A. & Ahmed, N., (1985). Black, J., Barnard, S. Some physical properties of a black aerosol, Journal of Aerosol Science, 5, 391–397.

Archives of Environmental Protection

The Journal of Institute of Environmental Engineering and Committee of Environmental Engineering of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.708
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.835

CiteScore 2017: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.371
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.737


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 220 181 12
PDF Downloads 62 48 4