Microbiological Air Contamination in Premises of the Primary Health-care

Ewa Karwowska 1 , Ewa Miaśkiewicz-Pęska 1 ,  and Dorota Andrzejewska-Morzuch 1
  • 1 Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Department of Biology, ul. Nowowiejska 20, 00-653 Warsaw, Poland

Abstract

The aim of this research was to evaluate the microbiological indoor air contamination level in chosen facilities of the primary health-care for adults and children. The total numbers of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, coli-group bacteria and moulds in both surgery rooms and patients’ waiting rooms were determined. Air samples were collected with a MAS 100 impactor and the concentration of microorganisms was estimated by a culture method. The microbiological air contamination level was diverse: the number of mesophilic bacteria ranged from 320 to 560 CFU/m3, number of staphylococci - 10-305 CFU/m3, coli group bacteria - 0-15 CFU/m3 and moulds - 15-35 CFU/m3. The bacteriological contamination level of the air in examined community health centers was higher than described in the literature for hospitals and exceeded the acceptable values proposed for the surgery objects.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Augustowska, M., & Dutkiewicz, J. (2006). Variability of airborne microfl ora in a hospital ward within a period of one year, Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 13, 99-106.

  • [2] Beggs, C.B. (2003). The airborne Transmission of Infection in Hospital Buildings: Fact or Fiction?, Indoor and Built Environment, 12, 1-2, 9-18.

  • [3] Cole, E.C., & Cook, C.E. (1998). Characterization of infectious aerosols in health care facilities: An aid to effective engineering controls and preventive strategies, American Journal of Infection Control, 26, 4, 453-464.

  • [4] Dascalaki, E.G., Lagoudi, A., Balaras, C.A., & Gaglia, A.G.(2008). Air quality in hospital operating rooms, Building and Environment, 43, 1945-1952.

  • [5] Dudzińska, M.R. (2011). Volatile organic compounds in Private cars and Public Vehicles. Annual Set The Environment Protection (Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska), 13, 101-116.

  • [6] Dumała, S.M., & Dudzińska, M.R. (2013). Microbiological Indor Air Quality in Polish Schools. Annual Set The Environment Protection (Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska), 15, 231-244.

  • [7] Fassatiova, O. (1985). Grzyby mikroskopowe w mikrobiologii technicznej. Wyd. Naukowo-Techniczne, Warszawa 1985.

  • [8] Górny, R.L. (2004). Biologiczne czynniki szkodliwe: normy zalecenia i propozycje wartości dopuszczalnych, Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 3, 41, 17-39.

  • [9] Jaffal, A.A., Nsanze, H., Bener, A., Ameen, A.S., Banat, I.M., & El Mogheth, A.A. (1997). Hospital airborne microbial pollution in a desert country, Environment International, 23, 2, 167-172.

  • [10] Klánová, K., & Hollerová, J. (2003). Hospital Indoor Environment: Screening for microoganisms and Particulate Matter, Indoor and Built Environment, 12, 61-67.

  • [11] Lemmen, S.W., Hafner, H., Zolldan, D., Stanzel, S., & Lutticken, R. (2004). Distribution of multi-resistant Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria in the hospital inanimate environment, Journal of Hospital Infection, 56, 191-197.

  • [12] Li, C.S., & Hou, P.A. (2003). Bioaerosol characteristics in hospital clean rooms, Science of the Total Environment, 305, 169-176.

  • [13] Lugauskas, A., Kristaponis, A., & Seskauskas, V. (2003). Species of conditionally pathogenic micromycetes in the air of dwellings and occupational premises, Indoor and Built Environment, 12, 167-177.

  • [14] Łebkowska, M. (2001). Zanieczyszczenia mikrobiologiczne w powietrzu obiektów komunalnych i przemysłowych, Inżynieria i Ochrona Środowiska, 4, 3-4, 335-343.

  • [15] Muszyński, Z. (2005). Bioaerozol powietrza sali operacyjnej - możliwości dekontaminacji i ograniczenia zakażeń, Zakażenia, 3, 70-74.

  • [16] Perdelli, F., Sartini, M., Spagnolo, A.M., Dallera, M., Lombardi, R., & Cristina M.L. (2006). A problem of hospital hygiene: The presence of Aspergilli in hospital wards with different air-conditioning features, American Journal of Infection Control, 34, 264-268.

  • [17] Pieckova, E., & Jesenska, Z. (1999). Microscopic fungi and their health implications in humans, Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 6, 1-11.

  • [18] Połednik, B., & Dudzińska, M. (2010). Ventilation control based on the CO2 and aerosol concentration and the perceived air quality measurements - a case study, Archives of Environmental Protection, 36, 4, 67-80.

  • [19] Poniewierski, K. (2008). Wentylacja, klimatyzacja obiektów służby zdrowia, w szczególności obiektów sanatoryjnych - trudności napotykane przez projektantów. Mat. Krakowskiej Konferencji Młodych Uczonych, Kraków, 319-330.

  • [20] Raper, K.B., & Thom, C. (1949). A Manual of the Penicillia. The Williams & Wilking Company, Baltimore 1949.

  • [21] Shintani, H., Taniai, E., Miki, A., Kurosu, S., & Hayashi, F. (2004). Comparison of the collecting effi ciency of microbiological air samplers, Journal of Hospital Infection, 56, 42-48.

  • [22] Siewior, J., Tumidajski, T., Foszcz, D., & Niedoba, T. (2011). Prediction of Air Pollutants Concentrations in GOP Rusing Statistical Models, Annual Set The Environment Protection (Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska), 13, 1261-1274.

  • [23] Smith G. (1960). An Introduction to Industrial Mycology, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London 1960.

  • [24] Sudharsanam, S., Srikanth, P., Sheela, M., & Steinberg, R. (2008). Study of the Indoor Air Quality in Hospital in South Chennai, India - Microbial Profi le, Indoor and Built Environment, 17, 5, 435-441.

  • [25] Tang, J.W., LI Y., Eames, I., Chan, P.K.S., & Ridgway, G.L. (2006). Factors involved in the aerosol transmission of infection and control of ventilation in healthcare premises, Journal of Hospital Infection, 64, 100-114.

  • [26] Wan, M.P., Chao, C.Y.H., Ng, Y.D., Sze To, G.N., & Yu, W.C. (2007). Dispersion of Expiratory Droplets in a General Hospital Ward with Ceiling Mixing Type Mechanical Ventilation System, Aerosol Science and Technology, 41, 244-258.

  • [27] Zwoździak, A., Sówka, I., Fortuna, M., Balińska-Miśkiewicz, W., Willak-Janc, E., & Zwoździak, J. (2013). Infl uence of PM1, PM2.5, PM10 Concentrations in Indoor School Environment on Spirometric Parameters in Schoolchildren. Annual Set The Environment Protection (Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska), 15, 2022-2038.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search