Ascaridia Galli Infection in Laying Hens and the Results of in Vitro Efficacy of Levamisole, Piperazine and Carvacrol, Whether is Necessary to Change the Deworming Protocols?

Milan Rajković 1 , 5 , Ivana Vučićević 2 , Miloš Vučićević 3 , Milan Došenović 3 , Claude Charvet L. 4 , Radmila Resanović 3  und Saša Trailović M. 5
  • 1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000, Belgrade
  • 2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000, Belgrade
  • 3 Department of equine, small animal, poultry and wild animal diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000, Belgrade
  • 4 ISP, INRA, Université Tours, France
  • 5 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000, Belgrade


We present a case of Ascaridia galli infection in laying hens on a farm in central Serbia. During the rearing period on litter, ascaridosis was diagnosed at 15 weeks of age by routine parasitological fecal examination. Pullets were treated with flubendazole for one week, and two weeks later the hens were moved to battery cages. The production results were within technological standards until the 23rd week and the medical health status was without any clinical symptoms. After that period weight loss began, the egg production dropped to 70% and eggs were of poor quality. Subsequently, severe feather pecking and an increase of mortality were reported. The postmortal examination showed severe anemia and several gross lesions in the liver, intestines, lungs, and kidneys. Different sizes of A. galli were found in the lumen of the duodenum and jejunum. Gross changes of the intestinal mucosa were present, such as a thickened intestinal wall with hemorrhagic spots, inflammation and necrotic patches. Histopathological examination showed marked changes in the intestines, liver and kidneys. All visible live parasites were collected and stored in Earle’s balanced salts, and females were used for in vitro susceptibility testing. Median lethal concentration (LC50) of piperazine, levamisole and carvacrol for A. galli was 119.7μM, 2.71μM and 3.26μM, were applied, respectively. Based on our results, it is likely that reinfection occurred after completed dehelmintization. In relation to the new circumstances and the regulation for laying hen welfare the deworming protocol should be changed in order to ensure successful dehelmintization. In order to prevent reinfection the treatment must be done at the end of the rearing period and thus be maximally effective.

Falls das inline PDF nicht korrekt dargestellt ist, können Sie das PDF hier herunterladen.

  • 1. Permin A, Hansen JW: Epidemiology, diagnosis and control of poultry parasites. FAO Animal Helth Manual No 4, 1998.

  • 2. Council Directive 1999/74/EC of 19 July 1999 laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens.

  • 3. Sharma N, Hunt PW, Hine BC, Sharma NK, Chung A, Swick RA, Ruhnke I: Performance, egg quality, and liver lipid reserves of free-range laying hens naturally infected with Ascaridia galli. Poult Sci. 2018, 97(6): 1914-1921.

  • 4. Soulsby EJL: Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals. 7th ed. Baillier Tindall: Elsevier, 1982.

  • 5. Ikeme MM: Observations on the pathogenicity and pathology of Ascaridia galli. Parasitology 1971, 63(2): 169-179.

  • 6. Ackert JE, Herrick CA: Effects of the nematode Ascaridia lineata (Schneider) on growing chickens. J Parasitol. 1928, 15(1): 1-13.

  • 7. Gauly M, Duss C, Erhardt G: Influence of Ascaridia galli infections and anthelmintic treatments on the behaviour and social ranks of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Vet Parasitol. 2009, 146(3-4): 271-280.

  • 8. Trailović SM, Marjanović DS, Nedeljković Trailović J, Robertson AP, Martin RJ: Interaction of carvacrol with the Ascaris suum nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, potential mechanism of antinematodal action. Parasitol Res. 2015, 114(8): 3059-3068.

  • 9. Marjanović SDj, Bogunović D, Milovanović M, Marinković D, Zdravković N: Antihelmintic activity of Carvacrol, Thymol, Cinnamaldehyde and P-Cymen against the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and rat pinworm Syphacia muris. Acta Vet-Beograd 2018, 68(4): 445-456.

  • 10. Norton RA, Ruff MD: Nematodes and Acanthocephalans. In: Saif YM, Barnes HJ, Glisson JR, Fadly AM, McDougald LR, Swayne DE (Eds): Diseases of Poultry. 11th edition. Iowa State Press, a Blackwell Publishing Company, Ames, Iowa. pp. 931-961.

  • 11. Katakam K, Nejsum P, Kyvsgaard N, Jorgensen C, Thamsborg SM: Molecular and parasitological tools for the study of Ascaridia galli population dynamics in chickens. Avian Pathol 2010, 39: 81-85.

  • 12. Ackert JE: The morphology and life history of the fowl nematode Ascaridia lineata (Schneider). Parasitology 1931, 23: 360-379.

  • 13. Permin A, Bojesen M, Nansen P, Bisgaard M, Frandsen F, Pearman M: Ascaridia galli populations in chickens following single infections with different dose levels. Parasitol Res. 1997, 83(6): 614-617.

  • 14. Balqis U, Hambal M, Darmawi, Cut S. Utami: Histopathological changes in intestine of chicken (Gallus domesticus) infected naturally by Ascaridia galli. Proceedings of the 3rd Annual International Conference Syiah Kuala University (AIC Unsyiah) 2013, 343-348.

  • 15. Salam ST: Research article ascariasis in backyard chicken – prevalence, pathology and control. Int J Recent Sci Res. 2015, 6(4): 3361-3365.

  • 16. Feroza S, Arijo AG, Bilqees FM, Phulan MS: Ascaridia galli infection induced gross-pathological changes in broiler chicken. Pak J Nematol. 2018, 36(2): 211-216.

  • 17. Prastowo J, Herawati O, Ariyadi B, Kurniasih K: Effects of Areca catechu Seed and Anredera cordifolia Leaf on Ascaridia galli Infection in the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). Int J Poult Sci 2017, 16(12): 494-499.

  • 18. Adang KL, Abdu PA, Ajanusi JO, Oniye SJ, Ezealor AU: Histopathology of Ascaridia galli infection on liver, lung, intestine, Heart and kidney of Experimentally infected Domestic pigeons (C.I.domestica) in Zaria,Nigeria. J Sci Technol. 2010, 11: 511-515.

  • 19. Bsrat A, Tesfay T, Tekle Y: Clinical, Gross and Histopathological Study on Common Local Chicken Diseases in Enderta District, South East Tigray. Eur J Biol Sci. 2014, 6(4): 95-103.

  • 20. Almamy K, Mohamed BB, Adama K, Aristide T, Kessoum K, Hamidou HT: In vitro anthelmintic activity of Securidaca longepedunculata fresen. (polygalaceae) aqueous root bark extract against Ascaridia galli and Raillietina echinobothrida adult worms from guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). World J Pharm Res. 2017, 6(1): 31-40.

  • 21. Trailovic SM, Robertson AP, Clark CL, Martin RJ. Levamisole receptor phosphorylation: effects of kinase antagonists on membrane potential responses in Ascaris suum suggest that CaM kinase and tyrosine kinase regulate sensitivity to levamisole. J Exp Biol. 2002, 205(24): 3979-3988.

  • 22. Lalchhandama L: Nematocidal effects of piperazine and the extract of Acacia oxyphylla stem bark on the poultry nematode, Ascaridia galli. Pharmacologyonline 2008, 3: 864-869.

  • 23. Tarbiat B: Ascaridia galli in laying hens: Adaptation of a targeted treatment strategy with attention to anthelmintic resistance. Doctoral thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala 2018.

  • 24. Jansson DS, Nyman A, Vagsholm I, Christensson D, Goransson M, Fossum O, Hoglund J: Ascarid infections in laying hens kept in different housing systems, Avian Pathol. 2010, 39(6): 525-532.


Zeitschrift + Hefte