Immunohistochemical Distinguishing between Canine Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors and Perivascular Wall Tumors

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Abstract

Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms originating from the elements of the nerve sheath. They are divided into two forms: benign and malignant PNST. Both benign and malignant PNSTs are not very common in domestic animals but they are reported in different animal species. Histologically, PNSTs are composed predominantly of spindle cells arranged in bundles, whorls and sheets, with a different number of pleomorphic cells and mitotic figures.

The aim of this study was a reclassification of 17 dog tumor samples initially diagnosed with peripheral nerve sheath tumors using histopathological analysis. The main criterion for reclassification was immunohistochemical positivity for various antigens.

PNSTs are often histologically very similar to other spindle cell tumors and immunohistochemistry is required for differential diagnosis. PNSTs generally express vimentin, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), collagen IV and laminin.

Four tumor samples were positive to muscular marker α-SMA and vimentin and negative for S-100 protein and desmin. The spindle cells whirling around some blood vessels were observed in these tumors so they were reclassified as perivascular wall tumors (PWTs). The other 13 tumors were S-100 protein and vimentin positive and α-SMA and desmin negative, thus classified as PNST.

The use of the immunohistochemical panel is necessary for distinguishing PNSTs from PWTs in routine diagnostics.

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