Effects of Glyphosate on Enzyme Activity and Serum Glucose in Rats Rattus norvegicus

Open access

Abstract

Glyphosate is a pesticide that influences many blood parameters if taken orally or subcutaneously. This pesticide causes important changes in the metabolic activity which can be measured by organospecific enzyme activity such as liver aminotransferases (AST and ALT), while glucose acts as a stress, energy and metabolism indicator after acute glyphosate exposure. In this research, glyphosate was applied subcutaneously to rats, administrated each 24 hours for a 15 days period. The concentration of the applied glyphosate was 2.8 g/kg. The experimental rats were 13 weeks old. The concentration of serum glucose, the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and liver transaminases (AST and ALT) were observed as indicators of metabolic changes after treatment. It was observed that glyphosate led to a statistically significant decrease of serum glucose level. Statistically significantly increased (p<0.05) AST, ALT and LDH activities are indicators of hepatocyte damage while LDH activity demonstrates damage of other tissues.

1. Benachour N, Sé ralini GE: Glyphosate formulations induce apoptosis and necrosis in human umbilical, embryonic, and placental cells. Chem Res Toxicol 2009; 22(1):97-105.

2. Gasnier C, Dumont C, Benachour N, Clair E, Chagnon MC, Séralini GE: Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell line. Toxicol 2009; 262(3):184-191.

3. Eriksson M, Hardell L, Carlberg M, Åkerman M: Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis. Int J Canc 2008; 123:1657-1663.

4. Daruich D, Zirulnik F, Gimenez MS: Effect of the Herbicide Glyphosate on Enzymatic Activity in Pregnant Rats and Their Fetuses. Env Res 2001; 85(3):226-231.

5. Marc J, Mulner-Lorillon O, Bellé R: Glyphosate-based pesticides affect cell cycle regulation. In: Biology of the Cell. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag; 2004,31-95

6. Williams GM, Kroes R, Munro IC: Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate for humans. Reg Toxicol Pharm 2000; 31:17-165.

7. Cox C: Glyphosate, Part 1: Toxycology. J Pestic Reform 1995; 15(3):14-20.

8. Shokrzadeh M, Shobi S, Attar H, Shayegan S, Payam SS, Ghorbani F: Effect of vitamins A, E and C on liver enzyme activity in rats exposed to organophosphate pesticide diazinon. Pak J Bio Sci 2012;15(19):936-41.

9. Martinez TT, Long WC, Hiller R: Comparison of the toxicology of the herbicide roundup by oral and pulmonary routes of exposure. Proc W Pharm Soc 1990; 193-197.

10. Tai T, Yamashita M, Wakimori H: Hemodynamic effects of Roundup, Glyphosate and Surfactant in dogs. Jap J Toxicol 1990; 5:63-68.

11. George J, Prasad S, Mahmood Z, Shukla Y: Studies on glyphosate-induced carcinogenicity in mouse skin. J Prot 2010; 73(5):951-964.

12. Thongprakaisanga S, Thiantanawatb A, Rangkadiloka N, Suriyoc T, Satayavivad J: Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via estrogen receptors. Food and Chem Toxicol 2013; 59:129-136.

13. Smith EA, Oehme FW: The biological activity of glyphosate to plants and animals: A literature review. Vet Hum Toxicol 1992; 34, 531-543.

14. Séralini GE, Clair E, Mesnage R, Gress S, Defarge N, Malatesta MD: Spiroux de Vend’omois, J. Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modifi ed maize. Food Chem Toxicol 2012; 50:4221-4231.

15. Bradberry SM, Proudfoot AT, Vale JA. Glyphosate poisoning. Toxicol Rev 2004; 23(3):159-67.

16. Beuret CJ, Zirulnik F, Giménez MS: Effect of the herbicide glyphosate on liver lipoperoxidation in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Reprod Toxicol 2005; 19(4):501-4.

17. Koller VJ, Fürhacker M, Nersesyan A, Mišík M, Eisenbauer M, Knasmueller S: Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of glyphosate and Roundup in human-derived buccal epithelial cells. Arch Toxicol 2012; 86(5):805-813

18. Jiraungkoorskul W, Upatham ES, Kruatrachue M, Sahaphong S, Vichasri-Grams S, Pokethitiyook P: Biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Environ Toxicol 2003; 18:260-267.

19. Williams AL, Watson RE, DeSesso JM: Developmental and reproductive outcomes in humans and animals after glyphosate exposure: a critical analysis. J Toxicol Environ Health 2012, 15;39-96.

20. Jasper R, Locatelli GO, Pilati C, Locatelli C: Evaluation of biochemical, hematological and oxidative parameters in mice exposed to the herbicide glyphosate-Roundup® Interdiscip Toxicol 2012; 5(3):133-140.

21. Heitanen E, Linnainmaa K, Vainio H: Effects of phenoxyherbicides and glyphosate on the hepatic and intestinal biotransformation activities in the rat. A Pharmacol Toxicol 1983; 53(2):103-12.

Acta Veterinaria

The Journal of University of Belgrade

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.604
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.439

CiteScore 2017: 0.65

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.287
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.608

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 245 201 18
PDF Downloads 121 108 8