Cow mastitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibits various local and systemic clinical signs at varying degrees of severity. The aim this study was to elucidate the virulence properties, antibiotic resistance and phylogenetics of 56 E. coli strains. Of all the studied strains, 12 were positive for hemolytic properties and 38 were positive for biofilm production. Additionally, 55 of the strains were positive for multiple resistances in bacteriological tests. PCR analysis revealed that 42 strains carried the traT gene, 20 strains had the shiga toxin gene (stx1-stx2), and 8 strains carried the intimin gene (eae), but all strains were negative for aerobactin gene (aer). All strains encoding shiga toxin genes were also positive for stx1, but only 4 strains were positive for stx2. There were no significant differences in virulence genes between antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains. The random amplifi ed polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction patterns revealed the existence of 13 main groups with 4 subgroups of E. coli. In this study, E. coli strains causing intramammary infections and originating from various sources might show resistance against common antibiotics. Pathogenity of E. coli that cause clinical mastitis, and prognosis of the infection might be predicted by obtaining the traT gene. Additionally, antibiotic resistance should be investigated at the genomic level to detect the relationship between virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. In field conditions, development of antibiotic resistance is the main cause of mastitis treatment failure. Thus, antibiotic resistance profiles in herds should be monitored and effective antibiotics should be administered
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Magas V Vakanjac S Pavlovic V Velebit B Mirilovic M Maletic M Duric M Nedic S: Efficiency evaluation of a bivalent vaccine in the prophylaxis of mastitis in cows. Acta Vet Beograd 2013 63:525-536.
2. DebRoy C Maddox CW: Identification of virulence attributes of gastrointestinal Escherichia coli isolates of veterinary significance. Anim Health Res Rev 2001 2: 129-140.
3. Lehtolainen T: Escherichia coli mastitis Bacterial factors and host response. Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Helsinki Finland. Academic Dissertation. 2004.
4. Suojala L: Bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli - clinical bacteriological and therapeutic aspects. Department of Production Animal Medicine Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Helsinki 2010 Finland.
5. Kobori D Rigobelo EC Macedo C Marin JM Avila FA: Virulence Properties of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in Brazil. Revue d’elevage et de médecine véterinaire des pays tropicaux 2004 57: 15-20..
6. Schroeder CM Meng J Zhao S Debroy C Torcolini J Zhao C Mcdermott PF Wagner DD Walker RD White DG: Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O26 O103 O111 O128 and O145 from animals and humans. Emerg Infect Dis 2002 8 1409-1414.
7. Ciftci A Onuk EE Savasan S: Detection of methicillin resistance and slime factor production of Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis. Brazil J Microbiol 2009 40: 254-261.
8. CLSI: M100-S23 Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty- Third Informational Supplement. 33. 2013.
9. Abd El-Razik AK Abdelrahmanb KA Ahmeda YF Gomaac AM Eldebaky HA: Direct identification of major pathogens of the bubaline subclinical mastitis in Egypt using PCR Khaled. J Am Sci 2010 6: 652-660.
10. Kaipainen T Pohjanvirta T Shpigel NY Shwimmer A Pyorala S Pelkonen S: Virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine clinical mastitis. Vet Microbiol 2002 85: 37-46.
11. Oliveira FA Paludo KS Arend LN Farah SM Pedrosa FO Souza EM Surek M Picheth G Fadel-Pitcheth CM: Virulence characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Genet Mol Res 2011 10: 4114-4125
12. Fitzmaurice J: Molecular diagnostic assay for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Department of Microbiology National University of Ireland University College Galway Ireland. 2003.
13. Guler L Gunduz K: Virulence properties of E.coli isolated from clinical bovine mastitis. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2007 31: 361-365
14. Versalovic J Koeuth T Lupski JR: Distribution of repetititve DNA sequences in eubacteria and application to fingerprinting of bacterial genome. Nucl Acids Res 1991 19 6823-6831.
15. Nemeth J Muckle CA Lo RY: Serum resistance and the traT gene in bovine mastitiscausing Escherichia coli. Vet. Microbiol 1991 28: 343-351.
16. Acik MN Yurdakul NE Cakici L Onat N Dogan O Cetinkaya B: traT and CNF2 genes of Escherichia coli isolated from milk of healthy cows and sheep. Res Vet Sci 2004 77: 17-21
17. Lin J Hogan JS Smith KL: Inhibition of in vitro growth of coliform bacteria by a monoclonal antibody directed against ferric enterobactin receptor FepA. J Dairy Sci 1998 81:1267-1274.
18. Fernandes JBC Zanardo LG Galvão NN Carvalho IA Nero LA Moreira MAS: Escherichia coli from clinical mastitis: serotypes and virulence factors. J Vet Diagn Invest 2011 23: 1146-1152.
19. Khan A Das SC Ramamurthy T Sikdar A Khanam J Yamasaki S Takeda Balakrish Nair G: Antibiotic resistance virulence gene and molecular profiles of Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli isolates from diverse sources in Calcutta India. J Clin Microbiol 2002 40: 2009-2015.
20. Fremaux B Raynaud S Beutin L Rozand CV: Dissemination and persistence of Shigatoxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on French dairy farms. Vet Microbiol 2006 117: 180-191.
21. Rangel P Marin JM: Analysis of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine mastitic milk. Pesq Vet Brasil 2009 29: 363-368.
22. Momtaz H Dehkordi FS Taktaz T Rezvani A Yarali S: Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli isolated from bovine mastitic milk: Serogroups virulence factors and antibiotic resistance properties. The Scientific World Journal 2012 1-9
23. Doğan B Klaessig S Rishniw M et al: Adherent and invasive Escherichia coli are associated with persistent bovine mastitis. Vet Microbiol 2006 116: 270-282.
24. Bean A Williamson J Cursons RT: Virulence genes of Escherichia coli strains isolated from mastitic milk. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Pub Health 2004 51: 285-287.
25. Parsek MR Singh PK: Bacterial biofilms: an emerging link to disease pathogenesis. Annu Rev Microbiol 2001 57: 677-701.
26. Reisner A Krogfelt KA Klein BM Zechner EL Molin S: In Vitro Biofi lm Formation of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains: Impact of environmental and genetic factors. J Bacteriol 2006 188: 3572-3581
27. Friedman S Klement E Frid M Schwimmer A Shpigel N: The Importance of Microbial Biofi lm in Bovine Mastitis. [http://www.israeldairy.com/]
28. Dadawala AI Chauhan HC Chandel BS Ranaware P Patel SS Khushboo S Rathod PH Shah NM Kher HN: Assessment of Escherichia coli isolates for in vitro biofi lm production. Vet World 2010 3: 364-366.
29. Borie C San Martín B Guerra D Zurich L: Estudio de sensibilidad frente a diferentes antibióticos y concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias de 3 cefalosporinas en cepas de Escherichia coli aisladas de mastitis séptica bovina. Avances Ciencias Veterinarias 1993 8:134-137.
30. Erskine R Cullor J Schaellibaum M Yancey B Zecconi A: Bovine Mastitis Pathogens And Trends In Resistance To Antibacterial Drugs National Mastitis Council Research Committee Report NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings 2004 400-414.
31. Dinç G Ata Z Temelli S: Investigation of extended-spectrum beta-laktamase activity and antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis. Vet J Ankara Univ 2012 59: 85-88.
32. Lira WM Macedo C Marin JM: The incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle with mastitis in Brazil. J Appl Microbiol 2004 97: 861-866
33. Langoni H Araújo WN Silva AV Souza LC: Tratamento da mastite bovina com amoxicilina e enrofl oxacina bem como a sua as- sociação. Arq Inst Bio 2000 67:177-180.
34. Amaral LA Nader-Filho A Rossi Junior OD Penha LCA: Ação de antibióticos e quimioterápicos sobre alguns agentes bacterianos da mastite bovina isolados da água utilizada no proces- so de obtenção do leite. Arq Brasil Med Vet Zoo 1996 48: 525-32.
35. Hawari AD Al-Dabbas F: Prevalence and distribution of mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Jordan. Am J Anim Vet Sci 2008 3: 36-39.
37. Zhao S White DG Ge B Ayers S Friedman S English L et al: Identification and characterization of integron-mediated antibiotic resistance among Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001 67: 1558-64.
38. Martín BS Kruze J Morales MA Agüero H Iragüen D Espinoza S León B Borie C: Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from dairy herds in Chile. [http://www.jarvm. com/articles/Vol1Iss1/SANMAJVM.htm]
39. Kateete DP Kabugo U Baluku H Nyakarahuka L Kyobe S Okee M Najjuka CF Joloba ML: Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala Uganda Plos One. 2013 8: 1-12.
40. Rajic Savic N Katic V Velebit B: Characteristics of coagulase positive staphylococci isolated from milk in cases of subclinical mastitis. Acta Vet Beograd 2014 64:115-123
41. Kılıç A Muz A Ertaş HB Özbey G: Random Amplifi ed Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Analysis of Escherichia coli Isolated From Chickens. Fırat Univ Vet J Health Sci 2009 23: 01-04
42. Johnson JR Kuskowski MA Menard M Gajewski A Xercavins M Garau J: Similarity between human and chicken Escherichia coli isolates in relation to ciprofl oxacin resistance status. J Infec Dis 2006 194: 71-78.
43. Suardana IW Artama WT Widiasih DA Mahardika IGNK: Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Int Res J Microbiol 2013 4 72-78.
44. Morshed R Peighambari S: Drug resistance plasmid profi le and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Iranian isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis. New Microbiologica 2010 33: 47-56.
45. Norazah A Wan Rasinah Z Zaili Z Aminuddin A Ramelah M: Analysis of PCR-RAPD DNA and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of antrum and corpus isolates of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysian patients. Malaysian J Pathol 2009 31: 29-34.