As many chemicals, also agricultural pesticides (APs) can be hazardous if not used safely. Under typical working conditions, the majority of exposure to the APs is through the hand-skin. Wearing appropriate gloves should be a standard practice when handling the APs. Unlike professionals, amateurs applying the APs in their gardens or vineyards are not trained for the workplace hygiene. In this survey conducted in the spring 2015 across the Slovak Republic, practices regarding the use of protective gloves were obtained. 520 copies of the “paper-and-pencil” questionnaire were distributed to amateur users and specialized stores selling the APs (return rate of 59 %). A set of ten questions a “closed-ended” or “multiple-choice” type was offered. 75 % of respondents wear gloves when handling the APs. Regrettably, among users wearing gloves, 58 % use the same disposable gloves repeatedly, 67 % wear the reusable gloves from last season, and 53 % do not wash outside of the reusable gloves with detergent before removing them. 30 % of glove users wear all available gloves including absolutely inappropriate materials like fabric and leather, 28 % do not recognize the glove material which they use, 20 % use disposable Latex and 3 % Vinyl and Polyethylene gloves. Only 19 % of glove users wear a material that is generally considered a good choice for handling the APs (7 % Neoprene & Latex, 5 % Neoprene, 5 % Nitrile, and 2 % Butyl rubber). The survey showed the need for better education about adequate protective gloves not only for amateur users but also for retailers selling the APs and protective equipment.
Fabian CL, Binder CR (2015) Int. J. Environ. Research Public Health, 12: 4670-4696.
Fishel FM (2015) Glove Selection for Working with Pesticides. UF/IFAS Extension. PI-120. Available in September 2015 at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/.
Furlong M, Tanner CM, Goldman SM, Bhudhikanok GS, Blair A, Chade A, Comyns K, Hoppin JA, Kasten M, Korell M, Langston JW, Marras C, Meng Ch, Richards M, Ross GW, Umbach DM, Sandler DP, Kamel F (2015) Environ. Int., 75: 144-150.
Hayden KM, Norton MC, Darcy D, Ostbye T, Breitner JC, Welsh-Bohmer KA (2009) Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 5: 128-129.
Hojerová J, Peráčková Z, Beránková M (2015). Proceedings of the International Conference of Cosmetology. Ed. Czech Society of Cosmetology, Frymburk: 4-8.
HSE (2014) Labelling Handbook. Volume 3: Requirements for Amateur Product Labels, Health and Safety Executive, London, 111-134.
Irzmanska E, Stefko A (2015) Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 47: 61-71.
ISO (2013) ISO 6529:2013(E). Determination of resistance of protective clothing materials to permeation by liquids and gases. Third edition. Technical Committee ISO/TC 94, Geneva.
Klimová Z, Hojerová J, Lucová M, Pažoureková S (2012) Acta Chim. Slovaca, 5: 70-74.
Lebailly P, Bouchart V, Baldi I, Lecluse Y, Heutte N, Gislard A, Malas JP (2009) Ann. Occup. Hyg., 53: 69-81.
MacFarlane E, Carey R, Tessa Keegel T, El-Zaemay S, Fritschi L (2013) Safety Health Work, 4: 136-141.
Machera K, Tsakirakis A, Charistou A, Anastasiadou P, Glass CR (2009) Ann. Occup. Hyg., 53: 573-584.
Machera K (2014). PPE Requirements and Pesticides Labelling. Conference on Safe and Sustainable Use of Pesticides, Beograde, 77 pp.
Mieldazys A, Mieldazys R, Vilkevicius G, Stulginskis A (2015) Agriculture - Use of pesticides/plant protection products. EU-OSHA. Available in September 2015 at: http://oshwiki.eu/wiki/Agriculture_-_Use_of_pesticides/plant_protection_products
Ngo MA, O’Malleya M, Maibach HI (2010) J. Appl. Toxicol., 30: 91-114.
OECD (2011) Guidance Notes on Dermal Absorption. Test No. 156. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development iLibrary, Paris, 72 pp.
Pezzoli G, Cereda E (2013) Neurology, 41: 2035-2042.
Purdue MP, Hoppin JA, Blair A (2007) Int. J. Cancer, 120: 642-649.
Shaw A, Harned C (2013) J. Pesticide Safety Educ., 15: 17-29.