The prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria and enterococci in fresh raw cow milk obtained from four vending machines in Slovakia was assessed. Also, differences in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in milk according to season (winter and summer) were compared. Number of total coliform bacteria ranged from 2.45 to 4.18 log CFU/mL. Majority of them were resistant to ampicillin. This was expected due to their intrinsic resistance apart from Escherichia coli which is sensitive to ampicillin. In addition, we observed also tetracycline and gentamicin resistance. Each of our samples contained E.coli. Number of total enterococci ranged from 1.95 to 3.78 log CFU/mL. We have observed predominantly vancomycin resistance in all tested samples. In samples taken during winter we have found higher number of total and resistant coliforms as well as total enterococci compared to those taken during summer.
Do Carmo LS, Souza Dias R, Linardi VR, Jose de Sena M, Aparecida dos Santos D, Solomakos N, Govaris A, Angelidis AS, Pournaras S, Burriel AR, Kritas SK, Papageorgiou DK (2009) Food Microbiology 26: 865-871.
Ellis KA, Innocent GT, Mihm M, Cripps P, McLean WG, Howard CV, Grove-White D (2007) Journal of Dairy Research 74: 302-310.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (2009) Microbiological Risk Assessment of Raw Cow Milk 1-119.
Jevinova P, Dudrikova E, Sokol J, Nagy J, Mate D, Pipova M, Cabadaj R (2003) Bulletin-Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 47: 211-216.
Jorgensen HJ, Mathisen T, Lovseth A, Omoe K, Qvale KS, Loncarevic S (2005) FEMS Microbiology Letters 252: 267-272.
Jung WK, Lim JY, Kwon NH, Kim JM, Hong SK, Koo HCh, Kim SH, Park YH (2007) International Journal of Food Microbiology 113: 102-107.
Mackuľak T, Vojs M, Grabic R, Golovko O, Staňova AV, Birošova L, Medveďova A, Hiveš J, Gal M, Kromka A, Hanusova A (2016) Monatshefte fur Chemie 147: 97-103.
Oliver SP, Boor KJ, Murphy SC, Murinda SE (2009) Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 6: 793-806.
Quigley L, O’Sullivan O, Stanton C, Beresford TP, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Cotter PD (2013) Federation of European Microbiological Societies 37: 664-698.
Regulation EC (2004) Regulation No. 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 laying down specific hygiene rules on the hygiene of foodstuffs, Official Journal of the European Union L 139 47: 206-320.
Teuber M, Perreten V (2000) Acta Veterianaria Scandinavica 93: 75-87.
The Community Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in the European Union in 2008, EFSA Journal (2010) 8: 1496-1906.
Valik L, Medveďova A, Birošova L, Liptakova D, Ondruš L, Šnelcer J (2009) Potravinarstvo 5: 38-43.
Valik L (2013) MPRV SV Available in March 2018: www.mpsr.sk/download.php?fID=7791.