Potential antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of a heliangolide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Helianthus annuus L. leaves

Samuel O. Onoja 1 , Charles O. Nnadi 2 , Samuel C. Udem 3  and Aruh O. Anaga 3
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umuahia, Nigeria
  • 2 Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • 3 Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Abstract

Heliangolide is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone and its derivatives are biologically active compounds present in most medicinal plants. This study evaluated the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of a heliangolide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Helianthus annuus L. leaves. The heliangolide sesquiterpene lactone was isolated through a combination of solvent-solvent partitioning, column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. The antioxidant activity of the compound was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays while the antidiabetic effects were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The heliangolide derivative at the concentration of 954.2 µmol L−1 showed 23.7 % DPPH and 26 % nitric oxide radical inhibitions compared with 96.6 and 50.9 %, resp., displayed by the controls (2,271.2 µmol L−1). It also reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in a time-dependent manner. The highest activity was recorded within 6 h post-treatment at 0.2 mmol kg−1 bm. The heliangolide derivative exhibited significant (p < 0.05) antioxidant and antidiabetic properties and provides a basis for further development of constituents of Helianthus annuus leaves for the management of such diseases.

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