Nutrition – facts and myths

Open access

Abstract

Taking responsibility for your life, among other factors, means also considering what to eat and which nutrition pattern to follow. Everyone needs to think about what they put on the plate and which ingredients should be avoided. Food, as such, will never be a drug or medication, like a painkilling tablet relieving pain in a short amount of time, for example. However, proper nutrition is our ally in the prevention of diseases, maintaining balance in our body and our mind. By following the main principles of a healthy diet, the physiological homeostasis can be managed, as well as faster recovery from disease achieved.

This review is aimed at summarizing basic principles of nutrition recommendations and at empowering stakeholders (pharmacists, medical biochemists, physicians) to be able to communicate to their patients and customers healthy and sustainable nutrition choices through the personalized advice.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study Lancet 390 (2017) 2050–2062; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32252-3

  • 2. M. Apostolopoulou K. Michalakis A. Miras A. Hatzitolios and C. Savopoulos Nutrition in the primary and secondary prevention of stroke Maturitas 72 (2012) 29–34; https://doi.org/S0378-5122(12)00076-X

  • 3. GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 Lancet 393 (2019) 1958–1972; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30041-8

  • 4. GBD 2015 Risk Factors Collaborators Global regional and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural environmental and occupational and metabolic risks or clusters of risks 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 Lancet 388 (2016) 1659–1724; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8

  • 5. WHO Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases: 2013–2020 http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/94384/1/9789241506236_eng.pdf; access date December 12 2016.

  • 6. R. Micha J. L. Penalvo F. Cudhea F. Imamura C. D. Rehm and D. Mozaffarian Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease stroke and type 2 diabetes in the United States JAMA 317 (2017) 912–924; https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2017.0947

  • 7. T. Grzelak A. Dutkiewicz E. Paszynska M. Dmitrzak-Weglarz A. Slopien and M. Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor Neurobiochemical and psychological factors influencing the eating behaviors and attitudes in anorexia nervosa J. Physiol. Biochem. 73 (2017) 297–305; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13105-016-0540-2

  • 8. M. Kirby and E. Danner Nutritional deficiencies in children on restricted diets Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 56 (2009) 1085–1103; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2009.07.003

  • 9. S. Soltani A. Jayedi S. Shab-Bidar N. Becerra-Tomas and J. Salas-Salvado Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in relation to all-cause mortality: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies Adv. Nutr. (2019); https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmz041

  • 10. A. O’Sullivan B. Henrick B. Dixon D. Barile A. Zivkovic J. Smilowitz D. Lemay W. Martin J. B. German and S. E. Schaefer 21st century toolkit for optimizing population health through precision nutrition Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 58 (2018) 3004–3015; https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1348335

  • 11. N. Di Daniele The role of preventive nutrition in chronic non-communicable diseases Nutrients 11 (2019); https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051074

  • 12. L. I. Lesser M. C. Mazza and S. C. Lucan Nutrition myths and healthy dietary advice in clinical practice Am. Fam. Physician. 91 (2015) 634–638; https://doi.org/d11881

  • 13. L. H. Kushi J. E. Cunningham J. R. Hebert R. H. Lerman E. V. Bandera and J. Teas The macrobiotic diet in cancer J. Nutrition 131 (2001) 3056S–3064S.

  • 14. C. Aihara The Do of Cooking (Ryorido): Autumn The George Ohsawa Macrobiotic Foundation Oroville 1977.

  • 15. B. E. Harmon M. Carter T. G. Hurley N. Shivappa J. Teas and J. R. Hebert Nutrient composition and anti-inflammatory potential of a prescribed macrobiotic diet Nutr. Cancer 67 (2015) 933–940; https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2015.1055369

  • 16. R. H. Lerman The macrobiotic diet in chronic disease Nutr. Clin. Pract. 25 (2010) 621–626; https://doi.org/10.1177/0884533610385704

  • 17. H. Kahleova M. Matoulek H. Malinska O. Oliyarnik L. Kazdova T. Neskudla A. Skoch M. Hajek M. Hill M. Kahle and T. Pelikanova Vegetarian diet improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers more than conventional diet in subjects with type 2 diabetes Diabet. Med. 28 (2011) 549–559; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03209.x

  • 18. H. Kahleova M. Klementova V. Herynek A. Skoch S. Herynek M. Hill A. Mari and T. Pelikanova The effect of a vegetarian vs conventional hypocaloric diabetic diet on thigh adipose tissue distribution in subjects with type 2 diabetes: A randomized study J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 36 (2017) 364–369; https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2017.1302367

  • 19. P. N. Appleby and T. J. Key The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans Proc. Nutr. Soc. 75 (2016) 287–293; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665115004334

  • 20. K. Wirnitzer P. Boldt C. Lechleitner G. Wirnitzer C. Leitzmann T. Rosemann and B. Knechtle Health status of female and male vegetarian and vegan endurance runners compared to omnivores – results from the NURMI study (Step 2) Nutrients 11 (2018); https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010029

  • 21. G. Segovia-Siapco and J. Sabaté Health and sustainability outcomes of vegetarian dietary patterns: a revisit of the EPIC-Oxford and the Adventist Health Study-2 cohorts Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. (2018); https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0310-z

  • 22. L. M. Petit A. Nydegger and P. Muller Vegan diet in children: what potential deficits to monitor? Rev. Med. Suisse 15 (2019) 373–375; https://doi.org/RMS0638-002

  • 23. S. Bilsborough and N. Mann A review of issues of dietary protein intake in humans Int. J. Sport. Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 16 (2006) 129–152.

  • 24. Sports Nutrition: More Than Just CaloriesTriggers for Adaptation (Eds. R. J. Maughan L. M. Burke) S. Karger AG Basel 2012.

  • 25. C. P. Lambert L. L. Frank and W. J. Evans Macronutrient considerations for the sport of bodybuilding Sports Medicine 34 (2004) 317–327; https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200434050-00004

  • 26. D. Verbanac Prehrana sport i tjelesna aktivnost in Sportska kardiologija: kardiologija sporta tjelesne i radne aktivnosti (Eds. Z. Babić H. Pintarić M. Mišogolj-Duraković D. Miličić) Medicinska naklada Zagreb 2018 pp 348–355.

  • 27. C. M. Kerksick S. Arent B. J. Schoenfeld J. R. Stout B. Campbell C. D. Wilborn L. Taylor D. Kalman A. E. Smith-Ryan R. B. Kreider D. Willoughby P. J. Arciero T. A. VanDusseldorp M. J. Ormsbee R. Wildman M. Greenwood T. N. Ziegenfuss A. A. Aragon and J. Antonio International society of sports nutrition position stand: nutrient timing J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 14 (2017) 33; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0189-4

  • 28. E. van der Louw D. van den Hurk E. Neal B. Leiendecker G. Fitzsimmon L. Dority L. Thompson M. Marchio M. Dudzinska A. Dressler J. Klepper S. Auvin and J. H. Cross Ketogenic diet guidelines for infants with refractory epilepsy Eur. J. Paediatr. Neurol. 20 (2016) 798–809; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.07.009

  • 29. T. Walczyk and J. Y. Wick The ketogenic diet: Making a comeback Consult. Pharm. 32 (2017) 388–396; https://doi.org/10.4140/TCP.n.2017.388

  • 30. J. Huang Y. Q. Li C. H. Wu Y. L. Zhang S. T. Zhao Y. J. Chen Y. H. Deng A. Xuan and X. D. Sun The effect of ketogenic diet on behaviors and synaptic functions of naive mice Brain Behav. 9 (2019) e01246; https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1246

  • 31. D. Verbanac On Nutrition: What When and Why to Eat Školska knjiga Zagreb 2004.

  • 32. M. Nestle Mediterranean diets: historical and research overview Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61 (1995) 1313S–1320S; https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/61.6.1313S

  • 33. F. Sofi The Mediterranean diet revisited: evidence of its effectiveness grows Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 24 (2009) 442–446; https://doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0b013e32832f056e

  • 34. R. Ostan M. C. Bene L. Spazzafumo A. Pinto L. M. Donini F. Pryen Z. Charrouf L. Valentini H. Lochs I. Bourdel-Marchasson C. Blanc-Bisson F. Buccolini P. Brigidi C. Franceschi and P. A. d’Alessio Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study an open-label randomized control trial Clin. Nutr. 35 (2016) 812–818; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2015.06.010

  • 35. N. Cano-Ibanez A. Gea M. Ruiz-Canela D. Corella J. Salas-Salvado H. Schroder E. M. Navarrete-Munoz D. Romaguera J. A. Martinez F. J. Baron-Lopez J. Lopez-Miranda R. Estruch B. Riquelme-Gallego A. Alonso-Gomez J. A. Tur F. J. Tinahones L. Serra-Majem V. Martin J. Lapetra C. Vazquez X. Pinto J. Vidal L. Daimiel J. J. Gaforio P. Matia E. Ros R. Fernandez-Carrion A. Diaz-Lopez M. D. Zomeno I. Candela J. Konieczna I. Abete P. Buil-Cosiales J. Basora M. Fito M. A. Martinez-Gonzalez and A. Bueno-Cavanillas Diet quality and nutrient density in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Influence of socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional assessment in the PREDIMED-Plus study Clin. Nutr. (2019); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.04.032

  • 36. A. V. Mattioli A. Farinetti and R. Gelmini Polyphenols Mediterranean diet and colon cancer Support Care Cancer (2019); https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-019-04835-9

  • 37. G. I. Russo T. Solinas D. Urzi S. Privitera D. Campisi A. Cocci M. Carini M. Madonia S. Cimino and G. Morgia Adherence to Mediterranean diet and prostate cancer risk in Sicily: population-based case-control study Int. J. Impotence Res. (2018) 269–275; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41443-018-0088-5

  • 38. H. L. Newmark Squalene olive oil and cancer risk: a review and hypothesis Cancer Epidemiol. Bio-markers Prev. 6 (1997) 1101–1103.

  • 39. K. Young Mediterranean diet named top diet for 2019 https://www.jwatch.org/fw114946/2019/01/07/mediterranean-diet-named-top-diet-2019; access date March 15 2019.

  • 40. S. Dernini E. M. Berry L. Serra-Majem C. La Vecchia R. Capone F. X. Medina J. Aranceta-Bartrina R. Belahsen B. Burlingame G. Calabrese D. Corella L. M. Donini D. Lairon A. Meybeck A. G. Pekcan S. Piscopo A. Yngve and A. Trichopoulou Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits Public Health Nutr. 20 (2017) 1322–1330; https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980016003177

  • 41. G. K. Beauchamp R. S. Keast D. Morel J. Lin J. Pika Q. Han C. H. Lee A. B. Smith and P. A. Breslin Phytochemistry: ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil Nature 437 (2005) 45–46; https://doi.org/10.1038/437045a

  • 42. D. Del Rio A. Rodriguez-Mateos J. P. E. Spencer M. Tognolini G. Borges and A. Crozier Dietary (poly)phenolics in human health: Structures bioavailability and evidence of protective effects against chronic diseases Antioxid. Redox Signaling 18 (2012) 1818–1892; https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2012.4581

  • 43. V. Fogliano and R. Sacchi Oleocanthal in olive oil: between myth and reality Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 50 (2006) 5–6; https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200690002

  • 44. M. Russo C. Spagnuolo G. L. Russo K. Skalicka-Woźniak M. Daglia E. Sobarzo-Sánchez S. F. Nabavi and S. M. Nabavi Nrf2 targeting by sulforaphane: A potential therapy for cancer treatment Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 58 (2018) 1391–1405; https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2016.1259983

  • 45. J. Parish M. Perić H. Čipčić Paljetak M. Matijašić and D. Verbanac Translating the mediterranean diet: from chemistry to kitchen Period. Biol. 113 (2011) 303–310.

  • 46. S. Silva E. M. Costa C. Calhau R. M. Morais and ME Pintado Anthocyanin extraction from plant tissues: A review Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 57 (2017) 3072–3083; https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1087963

  • 47. A. M. Pisoschi and A. Pop The role of antioxidants in the chemistry of oxidative stress: A review Eur. J. Med. Chem. 97 (2015) 55–74; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.04.040

  • 48. A. L. Lopresti Curcumin for neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of in vitro animal and human studies J. Psychopharmacol. 31 (2017) 287–302; https://doi.org/doi:10.1177/0269881116686883

  • 49. L. Aguirre N. Arias T. Macarulla A. Grazia and M. Portillo Beneficial effects of quercetin on obesity and diabetes Open Nutraceut. J. 4 (2011) 189–198; https://doi.org/10.2174/1876396001104010189

  • 50. P. Chen W. Zhang X. Wang K. Zhao D. S. Negi L. Zhuo M. Qi X. Wang and X. Zhang Lycopene and risk of prostate cancer: A ssystematic review and meta-analysis Medicine (Baltimore) 94 (2015) e1260.

  • 51. R. Zamora-Ros N. G. Forouhi S. J. Sharp C. A. González B. Buijsse M. Guevara Y. T. van der Schouw P. Amiano H. Boeing L. Bredsdorff G. Fagherazzi E. J. Feskens P. W. Franks S. Grioni V. Katzke T. J. Key K. T. Khaw T. Kühn G. Masala A. Mattiello E. Molina-Montes P. M. Nilsson K. Overvad F. Perquier M. L. Redondo F. Ricceri O. Rolandsson I. Romieu N. Roswall A. Scalbert M. Schulze N. Slimani A. M. W. Spijkerman A. Tjonneland M. J. Tormo M. Touillaud R. Tumino D. L. van der A G. J. van Woudenbergh C. Langenberg E. Riboli and N. J. Wareham Dietary intakes of individual flavanols and flavonols are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in European populations J. Nutr. 144 (2013) 335–343; https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.113.184945

  • 52. H. Okuda and L. K. Han Medicinal plant and its related metabolic modulators Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 118 (2001) 347–351.

  • 53. A. M. Chapa-Oliver and L. Mejia-Teniente Capsaicin: From plants to a cancer-suppressing agent Molecules 21 (2016) 931.

  • 54. F. R. Jardim F. T. de Rossi M. X. Nascimento R. G. da Silva Barros P. A. Borges I. C. Prescilio and M. R. de Oliveira Resveratrol and brain mitochondria: a review Mol. Neurobiol. 55 (2018) 2085–2101; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-017-0448-z

  • 55. I. Kang M. Okla and S. Chung Ellagic acid inhibits adipocyte differentiation through coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1-mediated chromatin modification J. Nutr. Biochem. 25 (2014) 946–953.

  • 56. M. Parnham and D. Verbanac Mild Plants and Dietary Immunomodulators in Principles of Immunopharmacology 3rd ed. (Eds. F. Nijkamp M. Parnham) Springer Basel AG Basel 2011 pp 451–472.

  • 57. A. Arno and S. Thomas The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis BMC Public Health 16 (2016) 676; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3272-x

  • 58. D. Verbanac and T. Meštrović Metabolism – the Basis for Understanding the Pathophysiology of Obesity. Obesity – Clinical Approach in Obesity – Clinical Approach (Ed. D. Štimac) Medicinska naklada Zagreb 2017 pp 56–68.

  • 59. M. E. Sanders Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 45 (2011) S115–S119; https://doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0b013e318227414a

  • 60. L. I. Lesser M. C. Mazza and S. C. Lucan Nutrition myths and healthy dietary advice in clinical practice Am. Fam. Physician. 91 (2015) 634–638; https://doi.org/d11881

  • 61. K. M. Tuohy F. Fava and R. Viola The way to a man’s heart is through his gut microbiota – dietary pro- and prebiotics for the management of cardiovascular risk Proc. Nutr. Soc. 73 (2014) 172–185; https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665113003911

  • 62. S. Khalesi J. Sun N. Buys and R. Jayasinghe Effect of probiotics on blood pressure Hypertension 64 (2014) 897–903; https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03469

  • 63. M. Matijašić T. Meštrović M. Perić H. Čipčić Paljetak M. Panek D. Vranešić Bender D. Ljubas Kelečić Ż. Krznarić and D. Verbanac Modulating composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota in IBD Patients Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17 (2016) 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040578

  • 64. M. Duenas I. Munoz-Gonzalez C. Cueva A. Jimenez-Giron F. Sanchez-Patan C. Santos-Buelga M. V. Moreno-Arribas and B. Bartolome A survey of modulation of gut microbiota by dietary polyphenols Biomed. Res. Int. 2015 (2015) 850902; https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/850902

  • 65. M. Panek H. Cipcic Paljetak A. Baresic M. Peric M. Matijasic I. Lojkic B. D. Vranesic Z. Krznaric and D. Verbanac Methodology challenges in studying human gut microbiota – effects of collection storage DNA extraction and next generation sequencing technologies Sci. Rep. 8 (2018) 5143; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23296-4

  • 66. C. Hammond and J. A. Lieberman Unproven diagnostic tests for food allergy Immunol. Allergy Clin. North Am. 38 (2018) 153–163; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2017.09.011

  • 67. A. Jung and T. Kirchner Liquid biopsy in tumor genetic diagnosis Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 115 (2018) 169–174; https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2018.0169

  • 68. I. G. Dominguez-Vigil A. K. Moreno-Martinez J. Y. Wang M. H. A. Roehrl and H. A. Barrera-Saldana The dawn of the liquid biopsy in the fight against cancer Oncotarget 9 (2017) 2912–2922; https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.23131

  • 69. L. Hood Systems biology and p4 medicine: past present and future Rambam. Maimonides Med. J. 4 (2013) e0012; https://doi.org/10.5041/RMMJ.10112

  • 70. L. Hood Future of medicine https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZRHcTlCZXrE; access date June 20 2019.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.405
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.701

CiteScore 2018: 1.47

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.314
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.637

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 487 487 107
PDF Downloads 413 413 84