Early Oligocene plant diversity along the Upper Rhine Graben: The fossil flora of Rauenberg, Germany

Open access


The macroflora of Rauenberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is treated monographically. The plant-bearing sediments are marine, mainly well-bedded clay- to siltstones, the so-called Fischschiefer, which are part of the Bodenheim Formation. Based on nannoplankton they are dated to nannoplankton zone NP 23 (Rupelian, Lower Oligocene). The plant remains, mainly leaves and some fructifications, are preserved as compressions. The taxonomic assignment is based on gross morphology and cuticle characteristics. The flora yields marine algae and remains of the very diverse terrestrial flora. A total of 68 taxa, including three types of algae, one cycad, 12 conifers, and 49 dicots, among them 5 palms, are described. The following fossil species are described for the first time: Laurophyllum rauenbergense, Myrica obliquifolia, Distylium metzleri, ? Berchemia altorhenana, ? Ternstroemites maritiae, Trachelospermum kelleri, Oleinites altorhenana, O. rauenbergensis, Dicotylophyllum badense, D. oechsleri, D. vesiculaeferens, D. ziegleri, ? Viscophyllum hendriksiae, and Cladites vesiculaeferens. Dicotylophyllum vesiculaeferens and Cladites vesiculaeferens bear peculiar, complex cuticular structures presumably representing salt-secreting glands. Both taxa are interpreted to derive from one plant species of yet uncertain systematic affinity. The flora bears a high proportion of broad-leaved, presumably evergreen taxa, whereas the diversity of modern Arcto-Tertiary taxa (sensu Kvaček 1994) is rather low. Most abundant are Platanus neptuni, Daphnogene cinnamomifolia, and Tetraclinis salicornioides. On the family level, Lauraceae (10 species) and Pinaceae (8) are most diverse, followed by Arecaceae (4-5), Cupressaceae, and Myricaceae (4 species each). Surprisingly, Fagaceae are documented solely by a single leaf of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis f. haselbachensis, and the record of Pentaphyllaceae remains ambiguous (? Ternstroemites maritiae). Sloanea olmediaefolia is recorded for the first time from western parts of Europe. Remarkable is the presence of the rare cycad Ceratozamia floersheimensis. The following possible vegetation units are suggested: zonal broadleaved sclerophyllous evergreen forests and an intrazonal coastal pine-laurel-palm association on near-coastal sandy soils, as well as gallery forests along streams. No records of swampy environments were recovered. The climate may be characterised as follows: Cfa climate in transition to Cwa (and Am or Af) climate sensu Köppen, mean annual temperature 19-24°C, mean annual precipitation 1300-1700 mm, mean temperature of the warmest month 28-29°C, mean temperature of the coldest month 8-14°C, mean precipitation of the wettest month >230 mm, mean precipitation of the driest month 18-38 mm, wettest month between May and October, driest month between November and March. The warm period was the wetter one.

The flora from Rauenberg most closely resembles that of Flörsheim (Kvaček 2004a) and shows relations to the Paratethys realm, for example the Tard Clay Formation. Relations to the floras from Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and North Bohemia, similar in age, are rather restricted: broad-leaved deciduous taxa are much less diverse, and the numerous presumably evergreen taxa and palms present in Rauenberg have not been recorded in the other regions, indicating a more complex vegetation differentiation than a simple north-south gradient. The high number of taxa of uncertain affinity at Rauenberg points to the need for further taxonomic studies of the flora of this time interval. Comparisons with European assemblages of the early Oligocene reveal that the vegetation diversity in Europe during this time interval is far from being well understood.

BAAS P. 1975. Vegetative anatomy and the affinities of Aquifoliaceae, Sphenostemon, Phelline and Oncotheca. Blumea, 22: 311-407.

BARTHEL M. 1976. Eozäne Flora des Geiseltales. Farne und Cycadeen. Abhandl. Zentr. Geol. Inst., Paläont. Abhandl., 26: 439-498.

BECHTEL AL., HÁMOR-VIDÓ M., GRATZER R., SACHSENHOFER R.F. & PÜTTMANN W. 2012. Facies evolution and stratigraphic correlation in the early Oligocene Tard Clay of Hungary as revealed by maceral, biomarker and stable isotope composition. Mar. Petrol. Geol., 35: 55-74.

BELLON H., BŮŽEK C., GAUDANT J., KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 1998. The České Středohoři magmatic complex in Northern Bohemia - 40K-40Ar ages for volcanism and biostratigraphy of the Cenozoic freshwater formations. Newsl. Stratigr., 36: 77-103.

BERRY E.W. 1906. Living and fossil species of Comptonia. American Naturalist, 40: 486-520.

BRONGNIART A. 1822. Sur la classification et la distribution des végétaux fossiles. Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 8: 3-91.

BRONGNIART A. 1828. Notice sur les plantes d`Armissan près Narbonne. Ann. Sci. Nat., Sér. I, 15: 43-51.

BŮŽEK C. 1971. Tertiary flora from the Northern Part of the Petipsy Area (North-Bohemian Basin). Rozpr. Ústř. Úst. Geol., Praha, 36: 1-118.

BŮŽEK Č., HOLÝ F. & KVAČEK Z. 1967. Eine bemerkenswerte Art der Familie Platanaceae Lindl. (1836) im nordböhmischen Tertiär. Monatsb. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 9(3): 203-215.

BŮŽEK, Č. HOLÝ F. & KVAČEK Z. 1976. Tertiary flora from the Volcanogenic Series at Markvartice and Veseličko near Česká Kamenice (České středohoři Mts.). Sbor. Geol. Věd Paleont., 18: 69-132.

BŮŽEK Č., HOLÝ F. & KVAČEK Z. 1996. Early Miocene Flora of the Cypris Shale (Western Bohemia). Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, Řada B, 52: 1-72.

Climate-Data.org; AM Online Projects - Alexander Merkel, Degerforserstr. 47, 74229 Oedheim.

DRANSFIELD J., UHL N.W., ASMUSSEN C.B., BAKER W.J., HARLEY M.M. & LEWIS C.E. 2008. Genera palmarum. The Evolution and Classification of Palms. Roy. Bot. Gard., Kew.

ENGELHARDT H. 1911. Über tertiäre Pflanzenreste von Flörsheim am Main. Abhandl. Senckenberg. Naturforsch. Gesel., 29: 309-406.

ETTINGSHAUSEN C.V. 1868. Die fossile Flora des Tertiärbeckens von Bilin. II. Denkschr. Kaiser. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Natur. Cl., 28: 191-242.

ETTINGSHAUSEN C.V. 1869. Die fossile Flora des Tertiärbeckens von Bilin. III. Denkschr. Kaiser. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Natur. Cl., 29: 1-110.

FERGUSON D.K. 1971. The Miocene flora of Kreuzau, Western Germany. Verhand. Koninkl. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurkunde, 60(1): 1-297.

FERGUSON D.K. 1974. On the taxonomy of recent and fossil species of Laurus (Lauraceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc., 68(1): 51-72.

FRANKENHÄUSER H. & WILDE V. 1995. Stachelspitzige Blätter aus dem Mitteleozän von Eckfeld (Eifel). Abhandl. Staat. Mus. Mineral. Geol. Dresden, 41: 97-115.

GIVULESCU R. 1975. Untersuchung einer Sammlung fossiler Pflanzen von Daia und Săcădate (Kreis Sibiu, Rumänien). Muzeul Brukenthal Studii şi comunicări Ştiinţe Naturale, 19: 69-79.

GOTH K., SUHR P. & SCHULZE R. 2003. Zwei Forschungsbohrungen in das verdeckte Maar von Baruth (Sachsen). Z. Angew. Geol., 49: 9-17.

GRIMM K.I., GRIMM M.C., KÖTHE A. & SCHINDLER T. 2002. Der “Rupelton” (Rupelium, Oligozän) der Tongrube Bott-Eder bei Rauenberg (Oberrheingraben, Deutschland). Cour. Forsch. Senckenberg, 237: 229-253.

GRIMM M.C. 2005. Beiträge zur Lithostratigraphie des Paläogens und Neogens im Oberrheingebiet (Oberrheingraben, Mainzer Becken, Hanauer Becken). Geol. Jahrb. Hessen, 132: 79-112.

GRIMM M.C., WIELANDT-SCHUSTER U., HOTTENROTT M., GRIMM K.I. & RADTKE G. 2011. Regionalgeologische Darstellungen: 57-132. In: Kommission D.S. (ed.), Stratigraphie von Deutschland IX; Tertiär, Teil 1: Oberrheingraben und benachbarte Tertiärgebiete. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften.

HABLY L. 1979. Some Data to the Oligocene Flora of the Kiscellian Tard Clay, Hungary. Ann. Hist.- Natur. Mus. Nat. Hungar., 71: 33-53.

HABLY L. & ERDEI B. 2015. The early Oligocene flora and palaeo-environment of the Tard Clay Formation - latest results. Hantkeniana, 10: 113-124.

HABLY L. & KVAČEK Z. 2008. Nomenclatural types and taxonomy of Unger’s (1850) and Ettingshausen’s (1853) fossil leaves recognised as new Sloanea records in the European Paleogene. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläont. Abhandl., 249(2): 139-142.

HARDENBOL J., THIERRY J., FARLEY M.B., JACQUIN T., DE GRACIANSKY P.-C. & VAIL P.R. 1998. Cenozoic sequence chronostratigraphy. In: de Graciansky P.-C., Hardenbol J., Jacquin T. & Vail P.R. (eds), Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basin. SEPM Special Publications.

HEER O. 1861. Beiträge zur näheren Kenntnis der sächsisch-thüringischen Braunkohlenflora. Abhandl. Naturwiss. Ver. Prov. Sachsen Thüringen, 2: 403-428.

HINCHLIFF CODY E. et al. 2015. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112.41 (2015): 12764-12769. DOI: 10.1073/ pnas.1423041112

HOLÝ F., KVAČEK Z. & TEODORIDIS V. 2012. A review of the Early Miocene mastixioid flora of the Kristina Mine at Hradek Nad Nisou in North Bohemia (the Czech Republic). Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, Ŕada B, Přírodni vedy, 68(3-4): 53-118.

JÄHNICHEN H. 1976. Schisandraceae und Illiciaceae als holarktische und subtropische Florenelemente im mitteleuropäischen Alttertiär. Abhandl. Zentral. Geol. Inst., Paläont. Abhandl., 26: 151-197.

JÄHNICHEN H., MAI . D.H. & WALTHER H. 1977. Blätter und Früchte von Engelhardia Lesch ex Bl. (Juglandaceae) aus dem europäischen Tertiär. Feddes Reperotorium, 88: 323-363.

JONES D.L. 1993. Cycads of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press.

KNOBLOCH E. 1964. Haben Cinnamomum scheuchzeri Heer und Cinnamomum polymorphum (Al. Braun) Heer nomenklatorisch richtige Namen? Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläontol., Monatsh., 1964(10): 597-603.

KNOBLOCH E. & KVAČEK Z. 1976. Miozäne Blätterfloren vom Westrand der Böhmischen Masse. Rozpr. Ústř. Úst. Geol., 42: 5-129.

KNOBLOCH E., KONZALOVA M. & KVAČEK Z. 1996. Die obereozäne Flora der Staré Sedlo-Schichtenfolge in Böhmen (Euopa). Rozpr. Čes. Geol. Úst., 49: 1-260.

KOLAKOVSKII A.A. 1958. Pervoe dopolnenie k kodorskoy pliocenovoy flore. Trudy Suchumskoyo Botan. Sada, 11: 311-397.

KÖPPEN W. 1936. Das geographische System der Klimate: 1-44. In: Köppen W. & Geiger G. (eds), Handbuch der Klimatologie. Gebr. Bornträger.

KOVAR J. 1982. Eine Blätter-Flora des Egerien (Ober- Oligozän) aus marinen Sedimenten der Zentralen Paratethys im Linzer Raum (Österreich). Beitr. Paläont. Österreich, 9: 1-209.

KOVAR-EDER J. 1996. Eine bemerkenswerte Blätter- Vergesellschaftung aus dem Tagebau Oberdorf bei Köflach, Steiermark (Unter-Miozän). Mitteil. Abt. Geol. Paläont. Landesmus. Joanneum, 54: 147-171.

KOVAR-EDER J. & KVAČEK Z. 2008. The integrated plant record (IPR) to reconstruct Neogene vegetation: the IPR-vegetation analysis. Acta Palaeobot., 47(2): 391-418.

KOVAR-EDER J. & MELLER B. 2001. Plant assemblages from the hanging wall sequence of the opencast mine Oberdorf N Voitsberg, Styria (Austria, Early Miocene, Ottnangian). Palaeontographica, B, 250: 65-112.

KOVAR-EDER J., HAAS M., HOFMANN C.C. & MELLER B. 2001. An Early Miocene plant assemblage severely influenced by a volcanic eruption, Styria, Austria. Palaeontology, 44(4): 575-600.

KOVAR-EDER J., KERN A.K. & SUN G. 2015. Fagaceae from the plant assemblage of Badaogou, Jilin Province, China (late Pliocene) indicate post-Pliocene diversification of oaks. Palaeontographica, B, 293: 149-171.

KOVAR-EDER J., KVAČEK Z. & STRÖBITZER-HERMANN M. 2004. The Flora of Parschlug (Styria, Austria) - Revision and Synthesis. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 105 A: 45-157.

KRUTZSCH W. 2011. Stratigrafie und Klima des Paläogens im mitteldeutschen Ästuar im Vergleich zur marinen nördlichen Umrahmung. Z. Deut. Ges. Geowiss., 162(1): 19-46.

KUNZMANN L. 1999. Koniferen der Oberkreide und ihre Relikte im Tertiär Europas. Abhandl. Staatl. Mus. Mineral. Geol. Dresden, 45: 7-191.

KUNZMANN L. & WALTHER H. 2002. Eine obereozäne Blätterflora aus dem mitteldeutschen Weißelster- Becken. Paläont. Z., 76: 261-282.

KUNZMANN L. & WALTHER H. 2012. Early Oligocene plant taphocoenoses of the Haselbach megafloral complex and the reconstruction of palaeovegetation. Palaeobio Palaeoenv, 92: 295-307. DOI 10.1007/s12549-012-0078-4

KVAČEK Z. 1971a. Supplementary notes on Doliostrobus Marion. Palaeontographica, B, 135: 115-126.

KVAČEK Z. 1971b. Fossil Lauraceae in the stratigraphy of the North-Bohemian Tertiary. Sbor. Geol. Věd Paleont., 13: 47-86.

KVAČEK Z. 1994. Connecting links between the Arctic Paleocene and European Tertiary floras. In: Boulter M.C., Fisher H.C. (eds), Cenozoic plants and climates of the Arctic. NATO ASI Series, 127: 251-266.

KVAČEK Z. 2002. A new Tertiary Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae, Cycadopsida) from the European Oligocene. Flora, 197: 303-316.

KVAČEK Z. 2004a. Revisions to the Early Oligocene flora of Flörsheim (Mainz Basin, Germany) based on epidermal anatomy. Senckenberg. lethaea, 84: 1-73.

KVAČEK Z. 2004b. A noteworthy cycad, Ceratozamia hofmannii Ettingshausen 1887 from the Lower Miocene of Austria re-examined. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläont., Monatsh., 2004(2): 111-118.

KVAČEK Z. 2004c. Early Miocene records of Craigia (Malvaceae s.l.) in the Most Basin, North Bohemia - whole plant approach. J. Czech Geol. Soc., 49: 161-171.

KVAČEK Z. 2014. New fossil records of Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae, Cycadales) from the European Oligocene and lower Miocene. Acta Palaeobot., 54: 231-247.

KVAČEK Z. & BŮŽEK C. 1966. Einige interessante Lauraceen und Symplocaceen des nordböhmischen Tertiärs. Zvláštní otisk Vèstníku Ústředního Ústavu Geologickeho, 41: 291-294.

KVAČEK Z. & BŮŽEK C. 1994. A new Early Miocene Mahonia Nutt. (Berberidaceae) of Europe. Vest. Českeho Geol. Úst., 69(3): 59-61.

KVAČEK Z. & HABLY L. 1998. New plant elements in the Tard Clay Formation from Eger-Kiseged. Acta Palaeobot., 38(1): 5-23.

KVAČEK Z., HABLY L. 2001. Sloanea (Elaeocarpaceae) fruits and foliage from the Early Oligocene of Hungary and Slovenia. Palaeontographica, B, 259: 113-124

KVAČEK Z. & TEODORIDIS V. 2011. The late Eocene flora of Kučlin near Bílina in North Bohemia revisited. Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, B, 67: 83-144.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 1978. Anisophylly and leaf homeomorphy in some Tertiary plants. Cour. Forschungsinst. Senckenberg, 30: 84-94.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 1981. Studium über „Quercus“ cruciata Al. Braun und analoge Blattformen aus dem Tertiär Europas. Acta Palaeobot., 21(2): 77-100.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 1989a. Palaeobotanical studies in Fagaceae of the European Tertiary. Plant Syst. Evol., 162: 213-229.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 1989b. Revision der mitteleuropäischen tertiären Fagaceen nach blattepidermalen Charakteristiken. Teil III - Dryophyllum Debey ex Saporta und Eotrigonobalanus Walther & Kvaček gen. nov. Feddes Repertorium, 100(11-12): 575 - 601.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 1995. The Oligocene volcanic flora of Suletice-Berand near Ústí nad Labem, North Bohemia - a review. Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, B, 50: 25-54.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 1998. The Oligocene Volcanic Flora of Kundratice near Litoměřice, České Středohoří Volcanic Complex (Czech Republic) - a Review. Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, B, 54(1-2): 1-42.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 2001. The Oligocene of Central Europe and the development of the forest vegetation in space and time based on megafossils. Palaeontographica, B, 259: 125-149.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 2003. Reconstruction of vegetation and landscape development during volcanic activity in the České středohoří Mountains. Geolines, 15: 60-64.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 2004. Oligocene flora of Bechlejovice at Děčin from the neovolcanic area of the České středohoří Mountains, Czech Republic. Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, B - Přirodní Vědy, 60(1-2): 1-60.

KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 2007. Early Oligocene flora of Seifhennersdorf (Saxony). Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, B - Přirodní Vědy, 63(2-4): 85-174.

KVAČEK Z. & WILDE V. 2010. Foliage and seeds of malvalean plants from the Eocene of Europe. Bull. Geosci., 85(1): 163-182.

KVAČEK Z., BŮŽEK C. & HOLY F. 1982. Review of Buxus fossils and a new large-leaved species from the Miocene of Central Europe. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 37: 36-394.

KVAČEK Z., BŮŽEK C. & MANCHESTER S. 1991. Fossil fruits of Pteleaecarpum Weyland - tiliaceous, not sapindaceous. Bot. Gaz., 152: 522-523.

KVAČEK Z., HABLY L. & MANCHESTER S.R. 2001. Sloanea (Elaeocarpaceae) fruits and foliage from the Early Oligocene of Hungary and Slovenia. Palaeontographica, B, 259: 113-124.

KVAČEK Z., TEODORIDIS V., MACH K., PŘIKRYL T. & DVOŘÁK Z. 2014. Tracing the Eocene-Oligocene transition: a case study from North Bohemia. Bull. Geosci., 89(1): 22-66.

Leaf Architecture Working Group 1999. Manual of leaf architecture: morphological description and categorization of dicotyledonous and net-veined monocotyledonous angiosperms. Smithsonian Institute: Washington.

MAI D.H. 1963. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Tertiärflora von Seifhennersdorf (Sachsen). Jahrb. Staatl. Mus. Mineral. Geol. zu Dresden, 1963: 39-113.

MAI D.H. 1986. Über Typen und Originale tertiärer Arten von Pinus L. (Pinaceae) in mitteleuropäischen Sammlungen. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Gattung in Europa. Feddes Repertorium, 97: 571-605.

MAI D.H. 1995. Tertiäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. G. Fischer Verlag, Jena, Stuttgart, New York.

MAI D.H. & WALTHER H. 1978. Die Floren der Haselbacher Serie im Weißelster-Becken (Bezirk Leipzig, DDR). Abhandl. Staatl. Mus. Mineral. Geol. Dresden, 28: 1-200.

MAI D.H. & WALTHER H. 1983. Die fossilen Floren des Weißelster-Beckens und seiner Randgebiete. Halle. Jahrb. Geowiss., 8: 59-74.

MAI D.H. & WALTHER H. 1985. Die obereozänen Floren des Weißelster-Beckens und seiner Randgebiete. Abhandl. Staatl. Mus. Mineral. Geol. Dresden, 33: 1-260.

MAI D.H. & WALTHER H. 1991. Die oligozänen und untermiozänen Floren Nordwest-Sachsens und des Bitterfelder Raumes. Abhandl. Staatl. Mus. Mineral. Geol. Dresden, 38: 4-230.

MALLISON H. 2002. Die Flora in den Barytkonkretionen der Alzey-Formation (unterer Meeressand) im Mainzer Becken (Rupel, Unter-Oligozän). Diplomarbeit Geowiss. Fak. Eberhard Karls Univ. Tübingen. 63 S.

MAXWELL E.E., ALEXANDER S., BECHLY G., ECK K., FREY E., GRIMM K., KOVAR-EDER J., MAYR G., MICKLICH N., RASSER M., ROTHNEBELSICK A., SALVADOR R.B., SCHOCH R.R., SCHWEIGERT G., STINNESBECK W., WOLFSCHWENNINGER K., ZIEGLER R. (2016). The Rauenberg fossil Lagerstätte (Baden-Württemberg, Germany): a window into early Oligocene marine and coastal ecosystems of Central Europe. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoecol., 463: 238-260. DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.10.002

MAYR G. 2004. Old World fossil record of modern-type hummingbirds. Science, 304: 861-864.

MAYR G. & MICKLICH N. 2010. New specimens of the avian taxa Eurotrochilus (Trochilidae) and Palaeotodus (Todidae) from the early Oligocene of Germany. Paläont. Z., 84: 387-395.

MENZEL P. 1926. Tertiärpflanzen von Waltersdorf bei Altenburg. Beitr. Geol. Thüringens, 1(5): 28-39.

MEULENKAMP J.E., SISSINGH W., POPOV S.V., KOVAC M. & BERGERAT F. 2000. Late Rupelian (32-29 Ma). In: Dercourt J., Gaetani M., Vrielynck B., Barrier E., Biju-Duval B., Brunet M.f., Cadet J.p., Crasquin S. & Sandulescu M. (eds), Atlas Peri-Tethys, palaeogeographical maps. CCGM/ CGMW, Paris.

MICKLICH N. & HILDEBRANDT L.H. 2010. Emergency excavation in the Grube Unterfeld (Frauenweiler) clay pit (Oligocene, Rupelian; Baden- Württemberg, S Germany): new records and palaeoenvironmental information. Kaupia, 17: 3-21.

MICKLICH N. & PARIN N.N. 1996. The fishfauna of Frauenweiler (Lower Oligocene, Rupelian; Germany): preliminary results of a review. Publicac. Espec., Instit. Español de Oceanogr., 21: 129-148.

MICKLICH N.R., TYLER J.C., JOHNSON G.D., ŚWIDNICKA A. & BANNIKOV A.F. 2009. First fossil records of the tholichthys larval stage of butterfly fishes (Perciformes, Chaetodontidae) from the Oligocene of Europe. Paläont. Z., 83: 479-497.

MORAWECK K., GREIN M., KONRAD W., KOVAREDER J., KVAČEK J., NEINHUIS C., ROTHNEBELSICK A., STILLER S., STREUBIG M., TRAISER C., UTESCHER T. & KUNZMANN L. (submitted). Leaf traits of extinct Platanus neptuni (Platanaceae): indicators for palaeoenvironment and reliable palaeoclimatic and palaeoatmospheric proxies? Rev. Palaeobot.

OH I.-C., DENK T. & FRIIS E.M. 2003. Evolution of Illicium (Illiciaceae): Mapping morphological characters on the molecular tree. Plant Syst. Evol., 240: 175-209.

OKUDA S. 1994. Pine forest communities in eastern North America: 245-271. In: Miyawaki A., Iwatsuki K., Grandtner M.M. (eds). Vegetation of Eastern North America. University of Tokyo Press.

PARASCHIV V. 2004. The fossil flora of Morilor valley, south-western Dacian Basin, Romania. Acta Palaeontol. Roman., 4: 315-330.

PEEL M.C., FINLAYSON B.L., MCMAHON T.A. 2007. Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, European Geosciences Union, 11(5): 1633-1644.

PROSS J., BRUCH A. & KVAČEK Z. 1998. Paläoklima- Rekonstruktion für den Mittleren Rupelton (Unter-Oligozän) des Mainzer Beckens auf der Basis mikro- und makrobotanischer Befunde. Mainzer geowiss. Mitt., 27: 79-92.

RADOŇ M., KVAČEK Z. & WALTHER H. 2006. Oligocene plant megafossils and environment from the newly recovered locality of the Holý Kluk Hill near Proboštov (Česke stredohoři Mountains, Czech Republic). Acta Univ. Carol., Geol., 47: 95-124.


READ R.W. & HICKEY L.J. 1972. A revised classification of fossil palm and palm-like leaves. Taxon, 21(1): 129-137.

REICH S., DI MARTINO E., TODD J.A., WESSELINGH F.P. & RENEMA W. 2015. Indirect paleoseagrass indicators (IPSIs): a review. Earth-Sci. Rev., 143: 161-186.

ROTH-NEBELSICK A., OEHM C., GREIN M., UTESCHER T., KUNZMANN L., FRIEDRICH J.-P. & KONRAD W. 2014. Stomatal density and index data of Platanus neptuni leaf fossils and their evaluation as a CO2 proxy for the Oligocene. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 206: 1-9.

RÜFFLE L. 1976. Myricaceae, Leguminosae, Icacinaceae, Sterculiaceae, Nymphaeaceae, Monocotyledones, Coniferae. Abhandl. Zentr. Geol. Inst., Paläont. Abhandl., 26: 337-438.

RUPP C. & ĆORIĆ S. 2012. Zur Ebelsberg-Formation. Jahrb. Geol. Bundesanstalt, 152: 67-100.

SACHSE M. 2001. Oleaceous laurophyllous leaf fossils and pollen from the European Tertiary. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 115: 213-234.

SALAMA F.M., EL-NAGGAR S.M., RAMADAN T. 1999. Salt glands of some halophytes in Egypt. Phyton, 39(1): 91-105.

SAPORTA G. DE 1865. Études sur la végétation du sud-est de la France à l’époque tertiaire. 2ème partie. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser., 5(3): 5-264.

SIEBER J. 1881. Zur Kenntniss der nordböhmischen Braunkohlenflora. Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., 82: 67-101.

SPIEGEL C., KUHLEMANN J. & FRISCH W. 2007. Tracing sediment pathways by zircon fission track analysis: Oligocene marine connections in Central Europe. Int. J. Earth Sci.(Geol. Rundschau), 96: 363-374.

STERNBERG C.V. 1820-1838. Versuch einer geognostisch- botanischen Darstellung der Flora der Vorwelt. Fasc. 1 (1820), fasc. 2 (1821), fasc. 3 (1823), fasc. 4 (1825), fasc. 5-6 (1833), fasc. 7-8 (1838). F. Fleischer, Leipzig, Ernst Becks Witwe, Regensburg, J. Spurny, G. Hässe Söhne, Prag.

TEODORIDIS V., KOVAR-EDER J. & MAZOUCH P. 2011a. Integrated plant record (IPR) vegetation analysis applied to modern vegetation in South China and Japan. Palaios, 26: 623-638.

TEODORIDIS V., KOVAR-EDER J., MAREK P., KVAČEK Z. & MAZOUCH P. 2011b. The integrated plant record vegetation analysis: Internet Platform and online application. Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, B - Přír. Vědy, 67(3-4): 159-165.

UNGER F. 1841-1847. Chloris protogaea. Leipzig.

UNGER F. 1850. Die fossile Flora von Sotzka. Denkschriften der kaiserl. Akad. Wissen. Wien, Math.- Naturwiss. Cl., 2: 3-67. Wien.

UNGER F. 1866. Sylloge plantarum fossilium III. Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wissen., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl., 25: 1-79.

WALTHER H. 1985. Das Vorkommen der Gattung Platanus L. im Tertiär des Weißelster-Beckens. Halle. Jahrb. Geowiss., 10: 9-19.

WALTHER H. 1998. Die Tertiärflora von Hammerunterwiesenthal (Freistaat Sachsen). Abhandl. Staatl. Mus. Mineral. Geol. Dresden, 43/44: 239-264.

WALTHER H. 1999. Die Tertiärflora von Kleinsaubernitz bei Bautzen. Palaeontographica, B, 249: 63-174.

WALTHER H. & KVAČEK Z. 2007. Early Oligocene flora of Seifhennersdorf (Saxony). Sbor. Nár. Muz. v Praze, B, 63: 85-174.

WALTHER H. & KVAČEK Z. 2008. Die Gattung Ilex L. (Aquifoliaceae) im Paläogen von Mitteleuropa. Feddes Repertorium, 119(3-4): 172-190.

WANG CHI-WU 1961. The forests of China with a survey of grassland and desert vegetation. Maria Moors Cabot Found., 5: 1-313.

WATSON L. & DALLWITZ M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 13th April 2016. www.delta-intkey.com.

WEBB L.J. 1955. A physiognomic classification of Australian rain forests. J. Ecol., 47: 551-570.

WEILER W. 1966. Die Bedeutung der Fischfunde im Rupelton der Tongrube Frauenweiler bei Wiesloch südlich von Heidelberg. Z. Rhein. Naturforsch. Ges. Mainz, 4: 1-37.

WESSEL P. & WEBER C.O. 1855. Neuer Beitrag zur Tertiärflora der Niederrheinischen Braunkohlenformation. Palaeontographica, 4: 111-168.

WEYLAND H. 1934. Zur Kenntnis der rheinischen Tertiärflora. I. Floren aus den Kieseloolith- und Braunkohlenschichten der niederrheinischen Bucht. Abhandl. Preuss. Geol. Landesanst., N.F., 161: 1-122.

WEYLAND H. & KILPPER K. 1963. Kritische Untersuchungen zur Kutikularanalyse tertiärer Blätter VI. Palaeontographica, B, 113: 93-116.

WINTERSCHEID H. & GREGOR H.-J. 2008. Eine Megaflora aus dem Rupelton (Unteroligozän) von Wiesloch bei Heidelberg (Baden-Württemberg). Doc. Nat., 171: 1-17.

WINTERSCHEID H. & KVAČEK Z. 2014. Revision aus den oberoligozänen Seeablagerungen von Orsberg bei Unkel am Rhein (Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland). Palaeontographica, B, 291: 1-83.

WOROBIEC G. & WOROBIEC E. 2013. Epiphyllous fungi from the Oligocene shallow-marine deposits of the Krabbedalen Formation, Kap Brewster, central East Greenland. Acta Palaeobot., 53(2): 165-179.

ZANAZZI A., KOHN M.J., MACFADDEN B.J. & TERRY JR D.O. 2007. Large temperature drop across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in central North America. Nature, 445: 639-642. doi:

ZACHOS J.C., DICKENS G.R. & ZEEBE R.E. 2008. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics. Nature, 451: 279-283

Acta Palaeobotanica

The Journal of W. Szafer Institute of Botany of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.524
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.513


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 78 78 32
PDF Downloads 35 35 22