Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and depositional environment of a lignite-bearing succession at Surkha Mine, Cambay Basin, north-western India

Open access

Abstract

The paper reports palynology and palynofacies studies of lignite-bearing sediments exposed in an opencast mine succession at Surkha, Bhavnagar District, in the coastal region of Gujarat, India. The study examined the relationships between the palynoflora, sedimentary organic matter and environment at the time of deposition of lignite and associated sediments. Based on dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, the sedimentary succession is dated as early Eocene (Ypresian). Palynofacies studies helped reveal the palaeoenvironmental fluctuations. The dominance of angiosperm pollen grains, freshwater algae, microthyraceous fungi and a large share of land debris in the lower part of the succession suggests a freshwater swamp environment of deposition for the basal lignite facies. Two cenozones - Matanomadiasulcites maximus and Lakiapollis ovatus - were identified in the lower lignite facies, determined from the dominance of these pollen grains in the palynological assemblages. The presence of angiosperm pollen grains and pteridophyte spores in the carbonaceous shale horizon above the lignite facies indicates a change in the depositional regime from freshwater swamp to lagoonal. This was identified as the Arecipites wodehousei cenozone due to its numerical abundance in the assemblage. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and diversity, and microforaminiferal test linings along with well-sorted terrestrial debris in the mudstone in the upper part of the succession suggest a more open marine estuarine type of depositional environment. The Homotryblium complex along with Cordospheridium fibrospinosum, Kenleyia sp., and Thalassiphora pelagica dinoflagellate cysts are the main representatives of this zone, determined as the Homotryblium tenuispinosum cenozone. The changing depositional settings (freshwater swamp-lagoonal-estuarine) along the vertical succession indicate a marine transgression in this region. Results from palynological studies of early Palaeogene successions of the Cambay and Kutch basins correlate well with the present findings.

AGRAWAL C.G. 1986. Structure and tectonics of exposed rocks between Narmada and Kim rivers in South Gujarat. J. Geol. Soc. India, 27: 531-542.

BAJPAI S., KAPUR V.V., DAS D.P., TIWARI B.N., SARVANAN N. & SHARMA R. 2005a. Early Eocene land mammals from Vastan Lignite Mine, District Surat (Gujarat), western India. J. Palaeontol. Soc. India, 50(1): 101-113.

BAJPAI S., KAPUR V.V., THEWISSEN J.G.M., TIWARI B.N., DAS D.P., SHARMA R. & SARVANAN N. 2005b. Early Eocene primates from Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, western India. J. Palaeontol. Soc. India, 50(2): 43-54.

BANERJEE A., JHA M., MITTAL A., THOMAS N.J. & MISRA K.N. 2000. The effective source rocks in the north Cambay Basin, India. Marine and Petrol. Geol., 17: 1111-1129.

BATTEN D.J. 1996. Palynofacies and palaeoenvironmental interpretation: 1011-1064. In: Jansonius J., McGregor D.C. (eds), Palynology, Principals and Applications. Am. Ass. Strat. Palynol. Foundation, Dallas.

BATTEN D.J. & MORRISON L. 1983. Methods of palynological preparation for palaeoenvironmental, source rock and organic maturation studies. Norweg. Petrol. Direct. Bull., 2: 35-53.

BESEMS R.E. 1993. Dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of Tertiary and Quaternary deposits of offshore NW Borneo. Geol. Soc. Malaysia Bull. 33: 65-93.

BHANDARI L.L. & CHOUDHARY L.R. 1975. Stratigraphical Analysis of Kadi and Kalol Formation, Cambay Basin, India. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 59: 856-871.

BHANDARI A. & RAJU D.S.N. 2000. Palaeogene biofacies, palaeoecology and sea level fluctuations in Tarapur-Cambay Block, India. Bull. Oil Nat. Gas Corp., 37: 197-213.

BROWN C.A. 1960. Palynological techniques. Baton Rouge, LA.

BUJAK J.P., DOWNIE C., EATON G.L. & WILLIAMS G.L. 1980. Dinoflagellate Cysts and Acritarchs from the Eocene of Southern England. Spl. Papers Palaeontol., 24: 1-100.

COLLINSON M.E. 2002. The ecology of Cainozoic ferns. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 119: 51-68.

COMBAZ A. 1964. Les Palynofacies. Rev. Micropaleontol., 7: 205-218.

COUVREUR T.L.P., FOREST F. & BAKER W.J. 2011. Origin and global diversification patterns of tropical rainforests: inferences from a complete genuslevel phylogeny of palms. BMC Bio., 9: 1-12.

CROUCH E.M., DICKENS G.R., BRINKHUIS H., AUBRY M.-P., HOLLIS C.J., ROGERS K.M., VISSCHER H. 2003. The Apectodinium acme and terrestrial discharge during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum: new Palynological, geochemical and calcareous nannoplankton observations at Tawanui, New Zealand. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 194: 387-403.

DAYAL A.M., MANI D., MISRA S. & PATIL D.J. 2013. Shale gas prospective of the Cambay Basin, Western India. Geohorizons, January, 2013: 26-31.

DEMAISON G.J. & MOORE G.T. 1980. Anoxic Environments and oil source bed genesis. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull., 64(8): 1179-1209.

DILCHER D.L. 1965. Epiphyllous Fungi from Eocene Deposits in Western Tennessee, U.S.A. Palaeontographica, B, 116: 1-54.

EDWARDS L.E. 2007. Palaeocene and Eocene Dinocysts from the Salt Range, Punjab, Northern Pakistan. In: Warnick P.D & Wardlaw B.R. (eds), Regional studies of the Potwar Plateau Area, Northern Pakistan. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull., 2078: C1-C10.

GARG R., PRASAD V., THAKUR B., SINGH I.B. & ATEEQUZZAMAN K. 2011. Dinoflagellate cysts from the Naredi Formation, South western Kutch, India: implication on age and palaeoenvironment. J. Palaeontol. Soc. India, 56(2): 201-218.

GARG R., ATEEQUZZAMAN K., PRASAD V., TRIPATHI S.K.M., SINGH I.B., JAUHRI A.K. & BAJPAI S. 2008. Age-diagnostic dinoflagellate cysts from the lignite-bearing sediments of the Vastan lignite mine, Surat District, Gujarat, Western India. J. Palaeontol. Soc. India, 53: 99-105.

HABIB D. & MILLER J.A. 1989. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 74: 23-47.

HABIB D., ESHET Y. & VAN PELT R. 1994. Palynology of sedimentary cycles: 311-335. In: Traverse A. (ed.), Sedimentation of Organic particles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IAKOVLEVA A.I., BRINKHUIS H. & CAVAGNETTO O.C. 2001. Late Palaeocene-Early Eocene dinoflagellate cysts from the Turgay Strait, Kazakhstan; correlations across ancient seaways. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 172(3,4): 243-268.

KAR R.K. 1985. The fossil floras of Kachchh IV. Tertiary palynostratigraphy. The Palaeobotanist, 34: 12-80.

KAR R.K. & BHATTACHARYA M. 1992. Palynology of Rajpardi Lignite, Cambay Basin, Gujra Dam and Akri Lignite, Kutch Basin. The Palaeobotanist, 39(2): 250-263.

KING C., IAKOVLEVA A.I., STEURBAUT E., HEILMANN- CLAUSEN C. & WARD D. 2013. The Aktulagay section, west Kazakhstan: a key site for northern mid-latitude Early Eocene stratigraphy. Stratigraphy, 10(3): 171-209.

KUMAR M. 1996. Palynostratigraphy and palaeoecology of Early Eocene palynoflora of Rajpardi lignite, Bharuch District, Gujarat. The Palaeobotanist, 43(3): 110-121.

LARSSON L.M., VAJDA V. & RASMUSSEN E.S. 2006. Early Miocene pollen and spores from western Jylland, Denmark-environmental and climatic implications. GFF, 128: 261-272.

LÜTING G. 1977. A general view of the Neogene and Quaternary of the Mediterranean with respect to lignite prospecting: 1199-1216. Proc.VI. Coll. Geol. Aegean Region, Inst. Geol. Min. Res., Athens.

MADHAVI T., KUMAR T.S., RASHEED M.A., KALPANA.G., PATIL D.J. & DAYAL A.M. 2009. Light hydrocarbons geochemistry of surface sediment from petroliferous region of the Mehsana Block, North Cambay Basin. J. Geol. Soc. India, 74: 7-15.

MANDAL J. & GULERIA J.S. 2006. Palynology of Vastan lignite (Surat District), Gujarat: its age, palaeoecology and depositional environment. The Palaeobotanist, 55: 51-66.

MASRAN T.C. & POCOCK S.A.J. 1981. The classification of plant derived particulate organic matter in sedimentary rocks: 145-175. In: Brooks J. (ed.), Organic maturation studies and fossil fuel exploration. Academic Press, London.

MOHAN M. 1995. Cambay Basin - A promise of oil and gas potential. J. Palaeontol. Soc. India, 40: 41-47.

MORLEY R.J. 2000. Origin and Evolution of Tropical Rain Forest. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Chichester.

NAGORI M.L., KHOSLA S.C. & JAKHAR S.R. 2013. Middle Eocene Ostrocoda from the Tadkeshwar Lignite Mine, Cambay Basin, Gujarat. J. Geol. Soc. India, 81: 514-520.

OBOH-IKUENOBE F.E. & VILLIERS S.E. 2003. Dispersed organic matter in samples from the western continental shelf of Southern Africa: palynofacies assemblages and depositional environments of Late Cretaceous and younger sediments. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 201: 67-88.

PACTON M., GORIN G.E. & VASCONCELOS C. 2011. Amorphous organic-matter experimental data on formation and the role of microbes. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol., 166: 253-267.

PHILP R.P. 1981. Diagenetic organic matter in recent sediments and environments of deposition. BMR J. Australian Geol. Geophys., 6: 301-306.

POCOCK S.A.J., VASANTHY G. & VENKATACHALA B.S. 1988. Introduction to the study of particulate organic materials and ecological perspectives. J. Palynol., 23-24: 167-188.

POTONIÉ R. & KREMP G.O.W. 1955. Die Sporae dispersae des Ruhrkarbons ihre Morphographie und Stratigraphie mit Ausblicken auf Arten anderer Gebiete und Zeitabschnitte. Teil I. Palaeontographica, B, 98: 1-136.

POTONIÉ R. & KREMP G.O.W. 1956. Die Sporae dispersae des Ruhrkarbons ihre Morphographie und Stratigraphie mit Ausblicken auf Arten anderer Ggebiete und Zeitabschnitte. Teil. II. Palaeontographica, B, 99: 85-191.

POWELL A.J. 1992. Dinoflagellate cysts of the Tertiary System: 155-251. In: Powell A.J. (ed.), A Stratigraphic index of Dinoflagellate Cysts. British Micropalaeontol. Soci. Publ. Ser., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

POWELL A.J., DODGE J.D & LEWIS J. 1990. Late Neogene to Pleistocene palynological facies of the Peruvian Continental Margin upwelling, Leg 112: 297-321. In: Suess E., von Huene R. et al. (eds), Proc. of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results.

PRASAD V., FAROOQUI A., TRIPATHI S.K.M., GARG R., THAKUR B. 2009. Evidence of Late Palaeocene- Early Eocene equatorial rain forest refugia in southern Western Ghats India. J Biosci., 34: 777-797.

PRASAD V., SINGH I.B., BAJPAI S., GARG R., THAKUR V., SINGH A., SARAVANAM N. & KAPUR V.V. 2013. Palynofacies and sedimentology- based high-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the lignite-bearing muddy costal deposits (early Eocene) in the Vastan Lignite Mine, Gulf of Cambay, India. Facies, 59: 737-761.

RANA R.S., KUMAR K. & SINGH, H. 2004. Vertebrate fauna from the subsurface Cambay Shale (Lower Eocene), Vastan Lignite, Gujarat India. Curr. Sci., 87: 1726-1733.

RAO M.R., SAHNI A., RANA R.S. & VERMA P. 2013. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan lignite mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India. J. Earth Syst. Sci., 122(2): 289-307.

SAHNI A. 2006. Biotic response to the India-Asia collision: Changing palaeoenvironment and vertebrate faunal relationship. Palaeontographica, A, 278: 15-26.

SAMANT B. & MOHABEY D.M. 2005. Response of flora to Deccan volcanism: A case study from Nand- Dongargaon basin of Maharastra, Implications to environment and climate. Gond. Geol. Magz., Spl. Vol. 8: 151-164.

SAMANT B. & MOHABEY D.M. 2014. Deccan volcanic eruptions and their impact on flora: Palynological evidence: 171-191. In: Keller G. & Kerr A.C. (eds), Volcanism, Impacts, and Mass Extinctions: Causes and Effects. Geo. Soc. America Spl. Paper, 505.

SAMANT B. & PHADTARE N.R. 1997. Stratigraphic palynoflora of the Early Eocene Rajpardi lignite, Gujarat and the lower age limit of the Tarkeshwar Formation of South Cambay Basin, India. Palaeontographica, B, 245: 1-108.

SIVAN P., DATTA G.C., & SINGH R.R. 2008. Aromatic biomarkers as indicators of source, depositional environment, maturity and secondary migration in the oils of Cambay Basin, India. Organic Geochem., 39: 1620-1630.

STANCLIFFE R.P.W. 1989. Microforaminiferal linings: their classification, biostratigraphy and palaeoecology with special reference to specimens from British Oxfordian sediments. Micropalaeontol., 35: 337-352.

STAPLIN F.L. 1969. Sedimentary organic matter, organic metamorphism, and oil and gas occurrences. Bull. Can. Petrol. Geol., 17: 47-66.

STEININGER F.F., RÖEGL F., HOCHULI P. & MÜLLER C. 1989. Lignite deposition and marine cycles. The Austrian Tertiary lignite deposits: a case history. Sitzber. Österr. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. Abt. I, 197: 309-332.

THANIKAIMONI G., CARATINI C., VENKATACHALA B.S., RAMANUJAM C.G.K. & KAR R.K. 1984. Selected Tertiary angiosperm pollen from India and their relationship with African Tertiary pollen. Inst. Fr. Pondicherry Trav. Sec. Scient. Techn., 19: 1-93.

TORRICELLI S., KNEZAUREK G. & BIFFI U. 2006. Sequence biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions in the Early Eocene Figols Group of the Tremp-Graus Basin (south-central Pyrenees, Spain). Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 232: 1-35.

TRAVERSE A. 1988. Palaeopalynology. Unwin Hyman, Boston.

TRIPATHI S.K.M. & SRIVASTAVA D. 2012. Palynology and palynofacies of the early Palaeogene lignite bearing succession of Vastan, Cambay Basin, western India. Acta Palaeobot., 52(1): 157-175.

TRYON R.M. & TRYON A.F. 1982. Ferns and Allied Plants with special reference to Tropical America. Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg, Berlin.

TYSON R.V. 1989. Late Jurassic palynofacies trends, Piper and Kimmeridge Clay Formations, UK onshore and offshore northern North Sea: 135-172. In: Batten D.J. & Keen M.C. (eds), Northwest European Micropalaeontology and Palynology, Ellis Horwood, Chichester.

TYSON R.V. 1995. Sedimentary Organic Matter, Organic Facies and Palynofacies. Chapman and Hall, London.

VAN GIJZEL P. 1982. Characterization and identification of kerogen and bitumen and determination of thermal maturation by means of qualitative and quantitative microscopial techniques: 1-46. In: Staplin F.L., Dow W.G., Milner C.W.D., O’Connor D.I., Pocock S.A.J., van Gijzel P., Welte D.H. & Yükler M.A. (eds), How to assess maturation and palaeotemperatures. SEPM Short Course Notes, 7.

VENKATACHALA, B.S. 1981. Differentiation of amorphous organic types in sediments: 177-200. In: Brooks J. (ed.), Organic maturation studies and fossil fuel exploration. Academic Press, London.

VENKATACHALA B.S. & KAR R.K. 1969. Palynology of the Tertiary sediments of Kutch. 1. Spores and pollen from borehole no. 14. The Palaeobotanist, 17: 157-178.

VENKATACHALA B.S., CARATINI C., TISSOT C. & KAR R.K. 1989. Palaeocene-Eocene marker pollen from India and tropical Africa. The Palaeobotanist, 37(1): 1-25.

WILSON G.J. 1988. Palaeocene and Eocene dinoflagellate cysts from Waipawa, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand Geol. Surv. Palentol. Bull. 57: 1-12.

WILSON L.R. & HOFFMEISTER W.S. 1952. Small foraminifera. The Micropalaeontol. 6: 26-28.

WILLIAMS G.L., STOVER L.E. & KIDSON E.J. 1993. Morphological and stratigraphic ranges of selected Mesozoic-Cenozoic dinoflagellate taxa in northern hemisphere. Geol. Surv. Canada 92-10: 1-137.

WILLIAMS G.L., BRINKHUIS H., PEARCE M.A., FENSOME R.A., WEEGINK J.W. 2004. Southern Ocean and global dinoflagellate cyst events compared: index events for the Late Cretaceous-Neogene. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Project, Scientific Results, 189: 1-98.

WING S.L., HARRINGTON G.J., SMITH F.A., BLOCH J.I., BOYER D.M. & FREEMAN K.H. 2005. Transient floral change and rapid global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Science, 310: 993-996.

ZACHOS J., PAGANI M., SLOAN L., THOMAS E. & BILLUPS K. 2001. Trends, rhythms and aberrations in global climates 65 Ma to present. Science, 292: 686-693.

Acta Palaeobotanica

The Journal of W. Szafer Institute of Botany of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2018: 1.16

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.402
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.616

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 245 200 22
PDF Downloads 138 122 12