Removal of Malachite Green and Congo Red Dyes from Water by Polyacrylonitrile Carbon Fibre Sorbents

Open access


The present work was aimed at evaluating the adsorption properties of malachite green and congo red dyes by polyacrylonitrile carbon fibre sorbents. The sorbents were activated and oxidized using potassium hydroxide and ammonium persulfate, respectively at mild conditions. Consequently, the sorbents were characterized for surface area, surface functional groups and thermal decomposition. The activated sorbent displayed a 18.8 mg/g (94 %) of malachite green removal at Co = 20 mg/L, while both modified sorbents showed a 17.5 mg/g (87.5 %) removal of congo red at the same concentration. All sorbents showed a rapid equilibrium of malachite green and congo red dyes in water. Also, the sorbents are somewhat tolerable against different solution pH conditions despite a slight change due to possible electrostatic interactions. Thus, the materials could be successfully employed to treat dyes-laden wastewater.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Shu-Hui T. Zaini M.A.A. (2016). Dyes – Classification and effective removal techniques in: J. C. Taylor (Ed.) Advances in Chemistry Research Nova Science Publishers Inc. New York 30 19-34.

  • Ming-Twang S. Zhi-Yong Q. Lin-Zhi L. Pei-Yee A.Y. Zaini M.A.A. (2015). Dyes in water: Characteristics impacts to the environment and human health and the removal strategies in J. C. Taylor (Ed.) Advances in Chemistry Research Nova Science Publishers Inc. New York 23 143-156.

  • Swan N.B. Zaini M.A.A. (2019). Adsorption of malachite green and congo red dyes from water: Recent progress and future outlook Ecol. Chem. Eng. S. 26 119-132 DOI: 10.1515/Eces-2019-0009.

  • Ming-Twang S. Lin-Zhi L. Zaini M.A.A. Zhi-Yong Q. Pei-Yee A.Y. (2015). Activated carbon for dyes adsorption in aqueous solution in J. A. Daniels (Ed.) Advances in Environmental Research Nova Science Publishers Inc. New York 36 217-234.

  • Hui T.S. Zaini M.A.A. (2015). Potassium hydroxide activation of activated carbon: A commentary Carbon Lett. 16 275-280 DOI: 10.5714/CL.2015.16.4.275.

  • Ma X. Yang H. Yu L. Chen Y. Li Y. (2014). Preparation surface and pore structure of high surface area activated carbon fibers from bamboo by steam activation Materials 7 4431-4441 DOI:10.3390/ma7064431.

  • Tretsiakova-Mcnally S. Joseph P. (2018). Thermal and calorimetric evaluations of polyacrylonitrile containing covalently-bound phosphonate groups Polymers 10 1-14 DOI:10.3390/polym1002013.

  • Simitzis J.C. Georgiou P.C. (2015). Functional group changes of polyacrylonitrile fibres during their oxidative carbonization and electrochemical treatment J. Mater. Sci. 50 4547-4564 DOI:10.1007/s10853-015-9004-2.

  • Zaini M.A.A. Alias N. Yunus M.A.C. (2016). Bio-polishing sludge adsorbents for dye removal Pol. J. Chem. Tech. 18 15-21 DOI:10.1515/pjct-2016-0065.

  • Sakamoto T. Zaini M.A.A. Amano Y. Machida M. (2019). Preparation and characterization of activated carbons produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches TANSO 286 9-13 DOI: 10.7209/tanso.2019.9.

  • Shaid M.S.H.M. Zaini M.A.A. Nasri N.S. (2019). Evaluation of methylene blue dye and phenol removal onto modified CO2-activated pyrolysis tyre powder J. Clean. Prod. 223 487-498 DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.097.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 97 97 21
PDF Downloads 76 76 23