Based on the high prevalence, diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered as a worldwide problem. More than 8.3 % of the world population is suffering from this disease. One of the causing factors of this disease can be the absence or imbalance of trace, essential elements. It can cause collapses of antioxidant defence and glucose intolerance. It plays a role in the pathogenesis and progression to diabetes mellitus. This review focuses on chromium, copper, selenium, vanadium, and zinc. Many studies deal with these elements but there is variability in opinions. Insulin-mimetic activity and ability to control the concentrations of blood glucose were confirmed. However, these effects were of more importance in patients with prediabetes. In patients with prediabetes, due to the supplementation of selected trace elements, it is possible to normalize the blood glucose level and prevent the development of diabetes mellitus. The importance of supplementation was confirmed for chromium and zinc. The supplementation of vanadium has a positive effect on the normalization of glycaemia but it is necessary to control the level as it can have toxic effects during long-term treatment. Conversely, higher copper concentrations in the body adversely affect patients and chelation therapy is needed. Selenium must be kept in the standard concentration and regular control of the concentration in the body is necessary. For this reason it is necessary to continue with analysis and the creation of new methodologies that could unify the view on the issue.
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