This investigation was carried out to assess the heavy metal concentrations and health risks associated with automobile workshops in Owerri Metropolis. Using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, soil samples from Orji Mechanic Village (OMV), Naze Mechanic Village (NMV), New Market Automobile Workshops (NMAV), Matrix Mechanic Yard (MMY) and Alvan Mechanic Yard (AMY) were assayed for Silver (Ag), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) concentrations. The result showed that at majority of the sites, the Ag, Pb, As, and Cd levels exceeded their baseline values, whereas the Ni and Co levels were equivalent to those of their baselines, at some sites. Soil samples at MMY were the most acidic while that of NMAV was the most alkaline. The pollution models indicated very high Ag contamination at OMV, NMV, and NMAV while all the sites showed very high contamination of Pb and Cd, and no Co, Ni, Hg, and Cr pollution was recorded for all the sites as shown by their Igeo values. The result for the enrichment factor showed anthropogenic sources of deposition of these heavy metals at all the sites. From the risk assessment models applied, none of the contaminated sites showed an estimated daily intake, hazard quotient, and total hazard index beyond the reference values, with Pb found to possess the greatest potentials of toxicity. This study has shown the necessity to periodically monitor and apply measures that can halt the environmental decay, occurring at the automobile workshops.
1. Mclaughlin, M.J.; Parker, D.R.; Clarke, J.M. Metals and micronutrients-food safety issues. Field Crop Research1999, 60, 143–163.
2. Lenntech, W.T. Chemical Properties, Health and Environmental Effects of Copper. Lenntech Water Treatment and Purification Holding 2009.
3. Gazso, L.G. The Key Microbial Processes in the Removal of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides from the Environment. A review. CEJOEM. 2001, 7(3), 178–185.
4. Kosolapov, D.B.; Kuschk, P.; Vainshtein, M.B.; Vatsourina, A.V.; Wiebner, A.; Kasterner, M.; Miler, R.A. Microbial Processes of Heavy Metal Removal from Carbon Deficient effluents in constructed wetlands. Eng. Life. Sci.2004, 4(5), 403–411.
5. Begum, A.; Ramaiah, M.; Harikrishna, K. I.; Veena, K. Analysis of Heavy Metals Concentration in Soil and Litchens from Various Localities of Hosur Road, Bangalore, India. Orbital: Electron. J. Chem.2009, 6(1), 13-22.
6. Huerta-Diaz, M.D.; Morse, J.W. Pyritization of Trace Metals in Anoxic Marine Sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta1992, 56, 2681-2702.
7. Cooper, D.C.; Neal, A.L.; Kukkadapu, R.K.; Brewe, D.; Coby, A.; Picardal, F.W. Effects of Sediment Iron Mineral Composition on Microbially Mediated Changes in Divalent Metal Speciation: Importance of Ferrihydrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta2005, 69, 1739-1754.
8. Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Smith, E.J.; Davison, W.; Sugiyama, M. Resolving and Modeling the Effects of Fe and Mn Redox Cycling on Trace Metal Behavior in a Seasonally Anoxic Lake. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2005, 69, 1947-1960.
9. Imevbore, A.A.A.; Adeyemi, S.A. Environmental monitoring in relation to pollution and control of oil pollution. Incorporated Proceedings of Seminar on the petroleum industry and the Nigerian environment. 1981, 6, 135-142.
10. Adeniyi, A.A.; Afolabi, J.A. Determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in soils within the vicinity of facilities handling refined petroleum products in Lagos metropolis. Environ. Int.2002, 28 (1-2), 79-82.
11. Europe Environmental Assessment Agency, (E.E.A). Progress in Management of contaminated sites (CSI 015), Kongan, 6DK-1050, Denmark, 2007.
12. Agomuo, E.; Amadi, P. Accumulation and toxicological risk assessments of heavy metals of top soils from markets in Owerri, Imo state, Nigeria. Env. Nano. Monit. Mgt.2017, 8(1), 121-1126.
13. Okereke, C.J.; Amadi, P.U. Accumulation and risk assessment of heavy metals contents of school playgrounds in Port Harcourt metropolis, Rivers State. J. Chem. Health Saf.2017, 24(5), 11-22.
14. Muller, G. Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. J. Geol. 1969, 2, 108–118.
15. Qing, X.; Yutong, Z.; Shenggao, L. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan) Liaoning, Northeast China. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2015, 120, 377–385.
16. Olayiwola, O.A. Levels of Pb, Fe, Cd and Co in Soils of Automobile Workshop in Osun State, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt.2011, 15(2), 279 – 282.
17. Environmental Agency. Environmental Concentrations of Heavy Metals in UK Soil and Herbage. UK Soil and Herbage Pollutant Survey. Bristol: Environ. Agency2007, p. 7.
18. Berrow, M.L.; Reaves, G.A. Total Chromium and Nickel Contents of Scottish Soils. Geoderma1986, 37, 15-27.
19. Adelekani, B.A.; Abegunde, K.D. Heavy metals contamination of soil and groundwater at automobile mechanic villages in Ibadan, Nigeria. Int. J. Phys. Sci.2011, 6(5), 1045-1058.
20. Gillette, B. Nickel named ‘Allergen of the Year’. ACDS adds to list of substances warranting more attention. Dermatology Times2008, 4, 15-16.
21. Olanrewaju, L.; Arokoyu, S.B.; Udeh, I.I. Assessment of Automobile Workshops and Heavy Metal Pollution in a Typical Urban Environment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Environ. Res. Eng. Mgt.2015,71(1), 27-35.
22. Ano, A.O. Trace metal studies on soils of the Nigerian coastal plain sands: Status of Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe and Mn. J. Soils and Crops. 1994, 4(1), 1-5.
23. Nwoko, C.O.; Egunjobi, J.K. Lead contamination of soil and vegetation in an abandoned battery factory site in Ibadan, Nigeria. J. Sust. Agric. Environ.2002, 4(1), 91-96.
24. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Test methods of evaluation of soil waste. UEPA Washington, D.E. USEPA S/W, 846 (1986).
25. Chokor, A.A.; Ekanem, E.O. Heavy Metals Contamination Profile in Soil from Automobile Workshops in Sapele, Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry2016, 4(2), 26-28.
26. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Arsenic TP-92/09. Georgia: Center for Disease Control, Atlanta 2000.
27. Tchounwou, P.B.; Wilson, B.; Ishaque, A. Important considerations in the development of public health advisories for arsenic and arsenic-containing compounds in drinking water. Rev. Environ. Health1999, 14(4), 211–229.
28. Centeno, J.A.; Tchounwou.; P.B.; Patlolla, A.K.; Mullick, F.G.; Murakat, L.; Meza, E.; Gibb, H.; Longfellow, D.; Yedjou, C.G. Environmental pathology and health effects of arsenic poisoning: a critical review. In Managing Arsenic In the Environment: From Soil to Human Health. R. Naidu, E. Smith, J. Smith, P. Bhattacharya, Eds.; CSIRO Publishing Corp: Adelaide, Australia 2005.
29. Ghosh, M.; Singh, S.P. Comparative Uptake and Phytoextraction Study of Soil Induced Chromium by Accumulator and High Biomass weed Species. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res. 2005, 3(2), 67-79.
30. Bartlett, R.J. Mobility and Bioavailability of Chromium in Soils. Adv. Res. Environ. Sci. Tech.1988, 20, 267-304.
31. Kadem, D.E.D.; Rached, O.; Krika, A.; Gheribi-Aoulmi, Z. Statistical analysis of vegetation incidence on contamination of soils by heavy metals (Pb, Ni and Zn) in the vicinity of an iron steel industrial plant in Algeria. Envirometrics2004, 15, 447-462.
32. Oguntimehin, I.; Ipinmoroti, K. Profile of Heavy Metals from Automobile Workshops in Akure, Nigeria. J. Environ. Sci. Tech.2008, 1(1), 19-26.
33. Ogunka-Nnoka, C.U.; Assor, K.C.; Onuoha, S.C.; Amadi, P.U. A Study of the Toxicants and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Soils, Plants, and Sea Foods from Ebubu and Elele-Alimini Communities in Rivers State. Ovidius Annals of Chemistry2018, 29(1), 1-7.
34. Bini, C.; Bech, J. PHEs, Environment and Human Health Potentially Harmful Elements in the Environment and the Impact on Human Health. Springer, Netherlands 2014.
35. Somer, E. The toxic potential of trace metal in foods. A review. J. Food. Sci.1994, 39, 215-217.
36. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine - Lead Toxicity. Atlanta: Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1992.
37. Grzetic, I.; Ghariani, R.H.A. Potential health risk assessment for soil heavy metal contamination in the central zone of Belgrade (Serbia). J. Serb. Chem. Soc.2008, 73(8-9), 923-934.
38. Wang, X.; Wang, F.; Chen, B.; Sun, F.; He, W.; Wen, D.; Liu, X.; Wang, Q. Comparing the health risk of toxic metals through vegetable consumption between industrial polluted and non-polluted fields in Shaoguan, South China. J. Food Agric. Environ.2012, 10(2), 943-948.