The present study examines some durability aspects of ambient cured bottom ash geopolymer concrete (BA GPC) due to accelerated corrosion, sorptivity, and water absorption. The bottom ash geopolymer concrete was prepared with sodium based alkaline activators under ambient curing temperatures. The sodium hydroxide used concentration was 8M. The performance of BA GPC was compared with conventional concrete. The test results indicate that BA GPC developes a strong passive layer against chloride ion diffusion and provides better protection against corrosion. Both the initial and final rates of water absorption of BA GPC were about two times less than those of conventional concrete. The BA GPC significantly enhanced performance over equivalent grade conventional concrete (CC).
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Aggarwal.P Aggarwal.Y Gupta.S.M “Effect of bottom ash as replacement of fine aggregates in concrete” Asian journal of civil engineering (building and housing) vol.8 no.1 pp 49-62 2007.
2. Apha Sathonsaowaphak A Chindaprasirt P Pimraksa K “Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar” Journal of Hazardous Materials vol.168 no.1 pp.44-50 2009.
3. ASTM C 1585 -13 “Standard test method for measurement of rate of absorption of water by hydraulic cement concrete” West Conshohocken PA.
4. ASTM C 642 - 13 “Standard Test Method for Density Absorption and Voids in Hardened Concrete” West Conshohocken PA.
5. Bastidas.D.M Fernandez-Jimenez.A Palomo.A Gonza-lez.J.A. “A study on the passive state stability of steel embedded in activated fly ash mortars” Corrosion Science vol.50 no.4 pp.1058-1065 2008.
6. Chindaprasirt P Jaturapitakkul C Chalee W Rattanasak U “Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers” Waste Management vol.29 no. 2 pp.539-543 2009.
7. Chaicharn chotetanorm Prinya Chindaprasirt Vanchi sata Sumrerng Rukzon Apha sathonsaowaphak “High calcium bottom ash Geopolymer: Sorptivity pore size and resistance to sodium sulphate stack” Journal of Materials in civil Engineering vol.25 pp. 105-111 2013.
8. Davidovits.J“Geopolymer - Inorganic polymeric new materials” Journal of thermal analysis vol. 37 no. 8 pp.1633-1656 1991.
9. Diana Bajarea Girts Bumanisb Liga Upeniecec “Coal Combustion Bottom Ash as Microfiller with Pozzolanic Properties for Traditional Concrete” Procedia Engineering vol. 57 pp.149 - 158 2013.
10. Duxon.P Provis.J Grant.L Mallicoat.S Kriven.K.M Van Deventer J.S.J “Understanding the relationship between geopolymer composition microstructure and mechanical properties” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects vol. 269 no. 1-3 pp.47-58 2005.
11. Esam Elawady Amr A. El Hefnawy Rania A. F. Ibrahim ‘Comparative Study on Strength Permeability and Sorptivity of Concrete and their relation with Concrete Durability’ International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology vol. 4 no. 4 pp.132-139 2014.
12. Emad Benhelal Alireza Rafiei Ezzatollah Shamsaei “Green cement production: potentials and Achievements” International journal of chemical Engineering and application vol.3 no.6 pp. 407-409 2012.
13. Fernandez-Jimenez A Palomo.A “Characterization of fly ashes. Potencial reactivity as alkaline cements” Fuel vol.82 no.18 pp.2259-2265 2003.
14. Fernandez-Jimenez A Palomo.A Sobrados.I Sanz.J “ The role played by reactive alumina content in the alkaline activation of fly ashes” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials vol. 91 no.1-3 pp.111-119 2006.
15. Florida Method of Test (FM 5-522-2000) of An Accelerated Laboratory Method for corrosion testing of reinforced concrete specimens using impressed current.
16. Ghafoori N Bucholic.J “Properties of high-calcium dry bottom ash concrete” ACI Materials Journal vol.94 pp.90-101 1997.
17. Hardjito D. Rangan B.V. “Development and Properties of Low-Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete” Curtin University of Technology Perth Australia 2005.
18. Hall.C “Water movement in porous building materials - I. Unsaturated flow theory and its applications” Building and Environment vol.12 no.2 pp.117-125 1997.
19. Hall .C “Water Sorptivity of Mortars and Concretes: a review” Magazine of Concrete Research vol. 41 no. 147 pp. 51-61 1989.
20. Ho.D. W. S Chirgwin.G. J “A performance specification for durable concrete” Construction and Building Materials vol.10 no.5 pp.375-379 1996.
21. Ilker Bekir Topcu Mehmet Ugur Toprak “Properties of geopolymer from circulating fluidized bed combustion coal bottom ash” Material. Science and Engineering: A vol. 528 no. 3 pp. 1472-1477 2011.
22. IS 10262 (2009) Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi India.
23. IS: 516-1959 (Reaffirmed 2004) Indian Standard methods of Tests for strength of concrete Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi.
24. IS : 4031 ( Part 11 ) - 1988 Methods of physical tests for Hydraulic cement Part 11 determination of density Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi India.
25. IS 383 (1987) Specification of coarse and fine aggregate from natural sources for concrete Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi India.
26. IS 2386 (part 3) (1963) Methods for testing for aggregates for concrete specific gravity density voids absorption and bulking Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi India.
27. IS 12269: 2013 Ordinary Portland Cement 53 Grade - Specification Bureau of Indian Standards New Delhi India.
28. Kim H K Lee H K “Use of power plant bottom ash as fine and coarse aggregate in high-strength concrete” Construction and Building Materials vol. 25 pp.1115-22 2011.
29. Logesh Kumar. M Revathi. V “Metakaolin bottom ash blend geopolymer mortar- A Feasible Study” Construction and Building Materials vol. 114 pp. 1-5 2016.
30. Malhotra.V.M. “Introduction: sustainable development and concrete technology” ACI Concrete. International vol.24 no.7 pp. 22 2002.
31. Malkit Singh Rafat Siddique “Strength properties and micro-structural properties of concrete containing coal bottom ash as partial replacement of fine aggregate” Construction and Building Materials vol.50 pp.246-256 2014.
32. McPolin.D.O “New test method to obtain pH profiles due to carbonation of concretes containing supplementary cementitious materials” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering vol.19 no.11 pp. 936-946 2007.
33. Mohammed Ba-Shammakh Hernane Caruso Ali Elkamel Eric Croiset Peter L. Douglas “Analysis and Optimization of Carbon Dioxide Emission Mitigation Options in the Cement Industry” American Journal of Environmental Sciences vol. 4 no.5 pp.482-490 2008.
34. Monita OliviaHamid R Nikraz “Durability of fly ash Geopolymer concrete in a Sea Water Environment” Proceedings of the concrete conference PerthWA 2011.
35. Monita Olivia Hamid Nikraz “Properties of fly ash geopolymer concrete designed by Taguchi method” Materials and Design vol.36 pp. 191-198 2012.
36. Milagre Martins.I.M Gonçalves.A Marques.J.C “Durability and Strength Properties of Concrete Containing Coal Bottom Ash” In: Brameshuber W (ed.) Proceedings pro077 : International RILEM Conference on Material Science - AdIPoC - Additions Improving Properties of Concrete - Theme 3.6-10 September 2010 Aaschen. RILEM Publications SARL 275 - 283 (9) 2010.
37. Rajamane.N.P Jeyalakshmi.R “Quantity of sodium hydroxide solids and water to prepare sodium hydroxide solution of given molarity for Geopolymer concrete mixes” ICI journal pp.33-36 2015.
38. Rangan.B. V. “Fly ash-based geopolymer Concrete” Research Report GC 4 Faculty of Engineering Curtin University of Technology Perth Australia 2008.
39. Rangan.B. V Wallah S. E. “Low-calcium fly ash-based geopolymer concrete: long-term properties” Research Report GC 2 Faculty of Engineering Curtin University of Technology Perth Australia 2006.
40. Reddy.D.V Edouard.J.B Sobhan.K Rajpathak.S.S. “Durability of Reinforced Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer concrete in the Marine Environment” 36th Conference on our world in concrete & structures Singapore 2011.
41. Revathi.V Saravanakumar.R Thaarrini.J ”Effect of molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio and Curing Mode on Compressive Strength of Ground Bottom Ash Geopolymer Mortar” International Journal of Earth Science and Engineering vol. 07 no.4 pp. 1511-1516 2014.
42. Si-Hwan Kim Gum-Sung Ryu Kyung-Taek Koh Jang-Hwa Lee “Flowability and Strength Development Characteristics of Bottom Ash based Geopolymer” World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology vol.70 pp. 53-59 2012.
43. Tianyu Xie Togay Ozbakkaloglu “Influence of coal ash properties on compressive behaviour of FA- and BAbased GPC” Magazine of Concrete Research pp. 1-14 2015.
44. Tianyu Xie Togay Ozbakkaloglu “Behavior of low-calcium fly and bottom ash-based geopolymer concrete cured at ambient temperature” Ceramics International vol.41 pp. 5945-5958 2015a.
45. Vanchai Sata Apha Sathona SaowaphakPrinya Chindaprasirt “Resistance of Lignite Bottom Ash Geopolymer Mortar to Sulfate and Sulfuric Acid Attack” Cement and Concrete Composites vol.34 pp. 700-708 2012.
46. Yodmunee.S Yodsujai.W “Study on corrosion of steel bar in fly ash based geopolymer concrete” Proceedings International Conference on Pozzolan Concrete and Geopolymer Khon Kaen Thailand pp.24-25 May 2006.