Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of ovarian follicular cysts in mammals

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Ovarian cysts remain to be one of the most common and serious problems in reproduction of farm animals, as well as humans. Apart from causing the fall in reproductive potential of the ovaries, occupying the place in which folliculogenesis and oogenesis occur, they also cause hormone imbalances, by preventing corpus luteum formation, hence lowering the amount of steroid hormone production. While singular cysts rarely affect fertility, hormone fluctuations that are associated with their presence promotes their multiplication, which usually has more adverse effects. While the cysts are easily detectable in humans, possessing distinct echography while examined by ultrasound, multiple factors prevent widespread use of effective detection methods among large herds of farm animals. Because of lack of noticeable symptoms of early stages of such malignancies, they rarely get detected before the animal stops to exhibit symptoms of heat. That causes scientific research to be focused on not only methods of detection, but also the ways to negate the effects of ovarian cysts and bring the affected specimen back to reproductive potential. Despite that, high costs of diagnosis and treatment, cause them to be uncommon on commercial farms. As lack of fertility eliminates animals from breeding purposed herds, ovarian cysts persist as a cause of large losses of the animal husbandry business. Continuous research, focused on natural examples of ovarian cysts should be conducted, in order to improve methods of detection, prevention, treatment and recovery from the effects of ovarian cysts.

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