Commentary. How to eradicate canine rabies: a perspective of historical efforts

Merritt Clifton 1
  • 1 PO Box 960, Clinton, Washington 98236, United States of America

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  • 1. Henry Wilde, Thiravet Hemachudha, Pakamat Khawplod, Veera Tepsumethanon, Supaporn Washarapluesadee, Boonlert Lumlertdacha. Rabies 2007: perspective from Asia. Asian Biomedicine: 2007; 1:345.

  • 2. Rabies ‘could be gone’ in decade. BBC News. [cited September 8, 2007]. Available from

  • 3. The Welcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at University Collage of London. The control and eradication of smallpox in South Asia. [cited July 18, 2006]. Available from

  • 4. Rabies vaccination for dogs urged for county. Oakland Tribune, July 23, 1922.

  • 5. Issue dog tags minus vaccine. Tucson Daily Citizen. March 7, 1949.

  • 6. Irked county may ‘Order’ dog shots. Syracuse Herald- Journal, July 15, 1951.

  • 7. Phillip Rawls. Rabies spreads as vaccinations decline. Associated Press. June 3, 2005.

  • 8. Complacency raises rabies risk. Yomiuri Shimbun. April 3, 2007.

  • 9. Reid-Sanden, Frances L., Dobbins, James G., Smith, Jean S., Fishbein, Daniel B., Rabies surveillance in the United States during 1989. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. December 15, 1990.

  • 10. Maggie Fox. U.S. free of canine rabies virus. Reuters. September 7, 2007.

  • 11. Bite treatment producers prepare for monsoons. Animal People. June 2001.

  • 12. Bogus vaccines contribute to human rabies death toll in China. Animal People. July/August 2007.

  • 13. Rabies vaccine recalled for having illegal ingredient. Xinhua News Agency. February 7, 2009.

  • 14. Chomel B, Chappuis G, Bullon F, Cardenas E, de Beublain TD, Lombard M, Giambruno E. Mass vaccination campaign against rabies: are dogs correctly protected?. The Peruvian experience. Review of Infectious Diseases. 1988; Suppl 4:S697-702.

  • 15. ProMed Archive Number 19980518.0956. [cited May 18, 1998]. Available from

  • 16. WHO. Annex 5: Vaccine application to dogs and oral immunization against rabies, World Survey of Rabies #31 for the year 1995. Available from

  • 17. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc. Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control 2008. Available from http://

  • 18. Charles E Rupprecht, Jean S Smith, Makonnen Fekadu, James E Childs. The ascension of wildlife rabies: a cause for public health concern or intervention? Emerg Infect Dis. 1995; 1: 107-113.

  • 19. James H. Steele. The early history of rabies, University of Texas School of Public Health. Accessible at

  • 20. How to eradicate rabies in 10 years or less. Animal People. September 2007.

  • 21. Merritt Clifton. What did the Prophet Mohammed really say about dogs?. Animal People. January/ February 2008.

  • 22. Merritt Clifton. High-energy post-Soviet activists do everything but raise money. Animal People. January/February 2003.

  • 23. Merritt Clifton. Animal control changing in China. Animal People. September 2006.

  • 24. Roberta Kalechovsky. The poet-physician & the healer-killer: vivisection & the emergence of a medical technocracy. Micah Publications; 2009.

  • 25. Mr. Bergh and the dogs. The New York Times. September 17, 1868.

  • 26. Disgusting brutality: killing dogs in the St. Louis dog pound. The New York Times. July 19, 1877.

  • 27. The doomed dogs. The New York Times. June 26, 1879.

  • 28. William Alan Swallow. Quality of Mercy. American Humane Education Society; 1963.

  • 29. Marion S Lane, Stephen L Zawistowski. Heritage of Care: The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Praeger Publishers; 2008.

  • 30. This topic was repeatedly addressed in National Humane Review editorials published between 1923 and 1940.

  • 31. U.S. progress against shelter killing. Animal People. July/August 2010.

  • 32. Allie Phillips. How shelter pets are brokered for experimentation: understanding pound seizure. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.; 2010.

  • 33. Jackson County stops selling pound animals to labs. Animal People. September 2006.

  • 34. Merritt Clifton. Move to reinstate tailpipe gassing in the Philippines. Animal People. May 2011.

  • 35. Merritt Clifton. Courage, compassion required of Bengal coast animal rescuers. Animal People January/February 2001.

  • 36. Merritt Clifton. The science of trap-neuter-release, paper presented at Asia for Animals Conference; Hong Kong, 2003.

  • 37. An accurate understanding of the relationship of traffic to street dog population requires avoiding confusing intense traffic congestion with the accomplishment of a transition to near-complete reliance on mechanized transport. Intense traffic congestion, common in much of the developing world, typically results from the introduction of motor vehicles to urban infrastructure not designed to accommodate high-speed traffic and the need to park motor vehicles, where streets continue to be occupied by pedestrians, pushcarts, pedal-powered vehicles, and animal-drawn vehicles. Such congestion begins at a volume of motorized traffic which remains far below the volume of motorized traffic seen in the U.S. and Europe, where urban infrastructure was rebuilt during the 1950s to accommodate mechanization. A study of relevance is: Kenworthy, Jeff, Automobile Dependence in Bangkok:An International Comparison With Implications for Planning Policies and Air Pollution , Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Australia, 2000; [cited May 29, 2011]. Available from

  • 38. John Marbanks. Going to the dogs (and cats). National Humane Review, January 1954. “John Marbanks” appears to have been a pseudonym used by the collaboration of National Family Opinion Inc. founders Howard and Clara Trumbull, who were also known to use a variety of other pseudonyms for their extracurriculular projects.

  • 39. Robert H Wilbur. Pets, pet ownership and animal control: social & psychological attitudes. Proceedings of the National Conference on Dog & Cat Control; February 3-5, 1976; Colorado, USA.; 1976.21.

  • 40. Merritt Clifton. Cold winter holds down roadkills. Peaks coincide with moon phases. Animal People. September 1994.

  • 41. Richard Ryder. Animal Revolution, Berg Publishers; 2000.

  • 42. Neil Pemberton, Michael Warboys. Mad Dogs and Englishmen: Rabies in Britain 1830-2000. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2007.

  • 43. Peter Ballard. A Dog Is For Life: Celebrating the first 100 years of the National Canine Defence League, National Canine Defense League 1990.

  • 44. offers a considerable collection of information from both popular and scholarly sources about the effects of chaining on dog behavior.

  • 45. Hiranmay Karlekar. Savage Humans & Stray Dogs. Sage Publications; 2008.

  • 46. Island-wide Dog Vaccination Campaign in Bali Significantly Decreases Rabies Cases. PRNewswire-USNewswire. April 5, 2011


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