Symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas

Abstract

This article reviews symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas, based on a case presentation. Bilateral xanthogranulomas of the choroid plexus were removed surgically from the lateral ventricles of a 12-year-old boy. At 9 years of age, he had evidence of increased intracranial pressure and was hospitalized. Dense enhancing masses were detected in computerized tomogram (CT) brain scan. The lesions were in the region of trigones with extension into the temporal horns and into the right occipital horn. The masses were brightly yellow and greasy. They measured 8.5 x 5.5 x 3.5 cm and 10 x 6.5 x 4.5 cm, respectively, and proved to be xanthogranulomas. Review of 35 reported symptomatic intraventricular xanthogranulomas revealed 11 lesions in the lateral ventricles in which six of them were bilateral. Twenty-two lesions were in the third ventricle, and two lesions were in the fourth ventricle. The lesion shows no significant sexual predilection. The patients’ average age is 37.6 years for males, 32.4 years for females, and 34.3 years for both sexes. The size of symptomatic lesions ranged from 1 to 3 cm in diameter but a few were large, up to 8 to 10 cm. The origin of foamy (xanthoma) cells in the xanthogranulomas arising in the choroid plexus is thought to be multicentric including the choroidal epithelium and stromal arachnoidal cells that have undergone xanthomatous changes. Increased intracranial pressure is the significant clinical feature of the intraventricular xanthogranulomas as in other mass lesions within the skull. Surgical extirpation is the treatment of choice if the lesion is accessible and the patient’s general condition is suitable.

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