Epidemiological patterns and risk factors associated with hepatitis B virus in Pakistani population

Open access

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus prevalence is increasing in Pakistani population. National level estimates regarding the prevalence are missing. People are unaware of the risk factors involved in HBV transmission. The objective of the study was to review the prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors associated with HBV transmission in Pakistani Population. Literature search was done by using keyword HBV prevalence, genotypes and risk factors from Pakistani population at Pubmed, PakMediNet and Google scholar. Six different studies showed that the percentage prevalence of HBV in general population was 4.61±0.73%, and 21 different studies showed the percentage prevalence of 2.33±0.46% in blood donors. High prevalence of 7.94±1.49% and 12.86±4.52% were observed in multi transfused and IDU populations. Six different studies showed that the major prevalent genotype was D. Awareness regarding various risk factors involved in-viral transmission was very low. Prevalence of HBV was very high in multitransfused populations due to non-implementations of international standards regarding blood transfusions. Barbers were unaware of the risk factors associated with their shops in viral transmission. Practices of unsterilized dental and surgical instruments and recycling of syringes were major factors in viral transmission. Massive awareness and vaccination programs are required to decrease the future burden of HBV from Pakistani population.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Zaki H Darmstadt GL Baten A Ahsan CR Saha SK. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B and delta virus infection in Bangladesh. J Trop Pediatr. 2003; 49:371-4.

  • 2. Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology disease burden treatment and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat. 2004; 11:97-107.

  • 3. Pakistan country profile. Pakistan: World Health Organization. (Accessed 2009 Jul 23). Available at http://www.whopak.org/pakprofile.htm.

  • 4. Andre F. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia the Middle East and Africa. Vaccine. 2000; 18:20-2.

  • 5. United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report (1996). New York:Oxford University Press. 1996.

  • 6. Abbas Z Jafri W Shah HA Khokhar N Zuberi SJ. PGS Consensus statement on management of Hepatitis B virus infection-2003. J Pak Med Assoc. 2004; 54: 150-8.

  • 7. Akhtar S Rozi S. An autoregressive integrated moving average model for short-term prediction of hepatitis C virus seropositivity among male volunteer blood donors in Karachi Pakistan. World J Gastroenterol. 2009; 15:1607-12.

  • 8. Waheed Y Shafi T Safi SZ Qadri I. Hepatitis C virus in Pakistan: a systematic review of prevalence genotypes and risk factors. World J Gastroentrol. 2009; 15:5647-53.

  • 9. Alam MM Zaidi SZ Malik SA Naeem A Shaukat S Sharif S et al. Serology based disease status of Pakistani population infected hepatitis B virus. BMC Infec Dis. 2007; 7:64.

  • 10. Abdulla EM Abdulla FE. Seropositive HBsAg frequency in Karachi and interior Sindh Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2007; 23:157-60.

  • 11. Chaudhary IA Shah SK Majrooh MA Alvi AA. Seroprevalence of hepatitis-B and C among patients reporting in surgical OPD at Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawlapindi. Review of 5 year literature. Pak J Med Sci. 2007; 23:514-17.

  • 12. Tanveer A Batool K Qureshi AW. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in university of the Punjab Quaid-e- Azam campus Lahore. ARPN J Agri Biol Sci. 2008; 3: 30-2.

  • 13. Noorali S Hakim ST McLean D Kazmi SU Bagasra O. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotype D in females in Karachi Pakistan. J Infect Devel Count. 2008; 2:373-8.

  • 14. Agboatwala M Isomura S Miyake K Yamashita T Morishita T Akram DS. Hepatitis A B and C seroprevalence in Pakistan. Indian J Pediatr. 1994; 61: 545-49.

  • 15. Khan HI. A study of seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in mothers and children in Lahore. Pak Ped J. 1996; 20:163-6.

  • 16. Jafri W Jafri N Yakoob J Islam M Tirmizi SFA Jafar T et al. Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi Pakistan. BMC Infect Dis. 2006; 6:101.

  • 17. Aziz S Muzaffar R Hafiz S Abbas Z Zafar MN Naqvi SA et al. helicobacter pylori hepatitis viruses A C E antibodies and HBsAg-prevalence and associated risk factors in pediatric communities of Karachi. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2007; 17:195-8.

  • 18. Ali N Khattak J Anwar M Tariq WZ Nadeem M Irfan M et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and C antibodies in young healthy adults. Pak J Pathol. 2002; 13:3-6.

  • 19. Mirza I A Mirza SH Irfan S Siddiqi R Tariq WZ Asif. Sero prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in young Adults seeking recruitment in armed forces. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2006; 56:192-7.

  • 20. Sharif TB Tariq WZ. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C in healthy adult male recruits. Pak J Pathol. 2006; 17:142-6.

  • 21. Alam M Tariq WZ Akram S Qureshi TZ. Frequency of hepatitis B and C in central Punjab. Pak J Pathol. 2006; 17:140-1.

  • 22. Altaf C Akhtar S Qadir A Malik KZ Ahmed P Tariq WZ. Frequency of hepatitis B and C among healthy adult males from central Sind. Pak J Pathol. 2007; 18: 113-5.

  • 23. Butt T Ami MS. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and c infections among young adult males in Pakistan. East Med Health J. 2008; 14:791-7.

  • 24. Azam N Mufti K Zafar N. Frequency of Hepatitis B &C in young male recruits from rural Pakistan. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2009; 2:59-64

  • 25. Mujeeb SA Mehmood K. Prevalence of HBV HCV and HIV infections among family blood donors. Ann Saudi Med. 1996; 16:702-3.

  • 26. Syed AM. Prevalence of HBV HCV and HIV infections among family blood donors in Karachi Pakistan. Int Conf AIDS. 1998; 12:391.

  • 27. Mujeeb SA kausar A Khalid M. Seroprevalence of HBV HCV and HIV among college first time volunteer blood donors. J Pak Med Assoc. 2000; 5:269-70.

  • 28. Ahmad F Shah SH Tariq M Khan JA. Prevalence of hepatitis B carrier and HIV in healthy donors at Ayub teaching hospital. Pak J Med. 2000; 39:91-2.

  • 29. Khattak MF. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B C and HIV in blood donors in northern Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc. 2002; 52:398-402.

  • 30. Mumtaz S Rehman MU Muzaffar M Hassan M Iqbal W. Frequency of seropositive blood donors for hepatitis B C and HIV viruses in railway hospital Rawalpindi. Pak J Med Res. 2002; 41:51-3.

  • 31. Rehman MU Akhtar GN Lodhi Y. Transfusion transmitted HIV and HBV infections in Punjab Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2002; 8:18-25.

  • 32. Khan MA Rehman A Ashraf M Ali A Ahraf M Ditta A. Prevalence of HBV HCV and HIV in blood donors at Liaquetpur. Profess Med J. 2006; 13:23-6.

  • 33. Asif N Khokhar N Ilahi F. Seroprevalence of HBV HCV and HIV infection among voluntary non remunerated and replacement donors in northern Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci. 2004; 20:24-8.

  • 34. Ahmad J Taj AS Rahim A Shah A Rehman M. Frequency of hepatitis B and C in healthy blood donors of NWFP: A single centre experience. J Post Med Inst. 2004; 18:343-52.

  • 35. Akhtar S Younus M Adil S Hassan F Jafri SH. Epidemiologic study of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in male volunteer blood donors in Karachi Pakistan. BMC Gastroenterology. 2005; 5:26.

  • 36. Fayyaz M Khan MA Qazi MA Chaudhary GMD Ahmed G. Hepatitis B C and HIV: sero-prevalence of infection in blood donors. Profess Med J. 2006; 13: 632-6.

  • 37. Jehangir W Ali F Shahnawaz U Iqbal T Qureshi HJ. Prevalence of hepatitis B C and HIV in blood donors of south Punjab. Esculapio. 2006; 2:67.

  • 38. Chaudhary IA Samilluah Khan SS Masood R Sardar MA Mallhi AA. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C among the healthy blood donors at Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi. Pak J Med Sci. 2007; 23:64-7.

  • 39. Aziz MS. Prevalence of Anti hepatitis C antibodies and hepatitis B surface antigen in healthy blood donors in Baltistan. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2006; 56:189-91.

  • 40. Mujeeb SA Nanan D Sabir S Altaf A Kadir M. Hepatitis B and C infection in first-time blood donors in Karachi - a possible subgroup for sentinel surveillance. East Mediterr Health J. 2006; 12:735-41.

  • 41. Khan MS Jamil M Jan S Zardad S Sultan S Sahibzada AS. Prevalence of hepatitis ‘B’ and ‘C’ in orthopedics patients at Ayub teaching Hospital Abbottabad. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2007; 19: 82-4.

  • 42. Khan ZT Asim S Tariq Z Ehsan IA Malik RA Ashfaq B et al. Prevalence of transfusion transmitted infection in healthy blood donors in Rawalpinid district Pakistan - a five year study. Int J Pathol. 2007; 5:21-5.

  • 43. Khan ZA Aslam MI Ali S. The frequency of hepatitis B and C among volunteer blood donors in Balochistan. Hep Mon. 2007; 7:73-6.

  • 44. Bhatti FA Ullah Z Salamat N Ayub M Ghani E. Anti-hepatitis B core antigen testing viral markers and occult hepatitis B virus infection in Pakistani blood donors: implications for transfusion practice. Transfusion. 2007; 47:74-9.

  • 45. Mehnaz A Hashmi H Syed S Kulsoom. Hepatitis B markers in mothers and its transmission in newborn. J Coll Physic Surg Pak. 2002; 12:240-2.

  • 46. Kazmi K. Ghafoor A Qureshi W. Mother-infant transmission of hepatitis B in Pakistan. Pak J Med Res. 2006; 42:152-6.

  • 47. Hakeem A Khan MS Abdullah M Rehman MA Hashmi MI. Prevalence of HbSAg and anti HCV in pregnant ladies attending antenatal clinic at sheikh Zayed Medical complex Rahim Yar Khan. Esculapio. 2006; 2:8-10.

  • 48. Rana G Akmal N Akhtar N. Prevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant females. Ann King Edward Med Coll. 2006; 12:313.

  • 49. Yousfani S Mumtaz F Memon A Memon MA Sikandar R. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B and C virus carrier state at a university hospital. J Liaquat Uni Med Health Sci. 2006; 5:24-7.

  • 50. Ahmad A Khichi GQK Rehman A. Hepatitis markers; its transmission in newborns from mothers. Profess Med J. 2007; 14:307-11.

  • 51. Ali HS Memon MA. Prevalence of hepatitis B infection in pregnant women in a tertiary care hospital. Infect Dis J. 2007; 16:35-8.

  • 52. Sami S Korejo R Bhutta SZ. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C: a Jinnah postgraduate medical centre experience. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009; 35:533-38.

  • 53. Sheikh SM. Hepatitis B and C: value of universal antenatal screening. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2009; 19:179-82.

  • 54. Mujeeb SA Khatri Y Khanani R. Frequency of parenteral exposure and seroprevalence of HBV HCV and HIV among operation room personnel. J Hosp Infect. 1998; 38:133-7.

  • 55. Rehman K Khan AA HaiderZ Shahzad A Iqbal J Khan RU et al. Prevalence of seromarkers of HBV and HCV in health care personnel and apparently healthy blood donors. J Pak Med Assoc. 1996; 46: 152-4.

  • 56. Naz S Ahmad M Asghar H. Prevalence of Hepatitis ‘B’ among hospital personnel in combined military hospital (CMH) Muzzafarabad. Int J Agri Biol. 2002; 4: 227-30.

  • 57. Aziz S Memon A Tily HI Rasheed K Jehangir K Quraishy MS. Prevalence of HIV hepatitis B and C amongst health workers of civil hospital Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2006; 56:48-50.

  • 58. Sarwar J Gul N Idris M Anis-ur-Rehman Farid J Adell MY. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in health care workers in Abbottabad. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008; 20:27-9.

  • 59. Mohammad J Hussain M Khan MA. Frequency of hepatitis B and C infection in thalassemic children. Pak Paed J. 2003; 27:161-4.

  • 60. Hussain M Khan MA Jan M Jan A. Frequency of hepatitis B and C in hemophiliac children. Pak Pead J. 2003; 27:157-60.

  • 61. Khokhar N Naz F. Hepatits B surface antigenemia in patients on hemodialysis. Rawal Med J. 2004; 29:18-21.

  • 62. Shah SMA Khan MT Zahour Ullah Ashfaq NY. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection in multitransfused thalassemia major in North West Frontier Province. Pak J Med Sci. 2005; 21:281-3.

  • 63. Malik N Hussain Z. Marker of viral hepatitis in hemophiliacs. Biomedica. 2006; 22:48-50.

  • 64. Rahman M Lodhi Y. Prospects and future of conservative management of beta thalassemia major in adeveloping country country. Pak J Med Sci. 2004; 20:105-12.

  • 65. Ghauri AK Rehman N Shah SA Memon MA. Seroprevalence of HIV HBV HCV and syphilis in injecting drug users at Karachi. Int Conf AIDS. 2002; 14:7-12.

  • 66. Altaf A Shah SA Zaidi NA Memon A Nadeem-ur-Rehman Wray N. High risk behaviors of injection drug users registered with harm reduction programme in Karachi Pakistan. Harm Reduct J. 2007; 14:7.

  • 67. Achakzai M Kassi M Kasi PM. Seroprevalences and co-infections of HIV hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus in injecting drug users in Quetta Pakistan. Trop Doct. 2007; 37:43-5.

  • 68. Alam MM Zaidi SZ Shaukat S Sharif S Angez M Naeem A et al. Common genotypes of hepatitis B virus prevalent in injecting drug abusers(addicts) of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Vir J. 2007; 4:63.

  • 69. Baig S Siddiqui AA Chakarvarty R Moatter T Unnissa T Nazr-ul-hasnain. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis B virus in Pakistan. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008; 18:688-94.

  • 70. Ahmed CS Wang A Bin Z Chen J Kamal M Hou J. Hepatitis B virus genotypes subgenotypes precore and basal core promoter mutations in the two largest provinces of Pakistan. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 24:569-73.

  • 71. Baig S Siddiqui A chakarvarty R Moattar T. Hepatitis B virus subgenotypes D1 and D3 are prevalent in Pakistan. BMC Res Notes. 2009; 2:1.

  • 72. Luby SP Qamruddin K Shah AA Omair A Pahsa O Khan AJ et al. The relationship between therapeutic injections and high prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Hafizabad. Pak Epidemiol Infect. 1997; 119:349-56.

  • 73. Zafar A Habib F Hadwani R Ejaz M Khowaja K Khowaja R et al. Impact of infection control activities on the rate of needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan over a period of six years: an observational study. BMC Inf Dis. 2009; 9:78.

  • 74. Altaf A Janjua NZ Hutin Y. The cost of unsafe injections in Pakistan and challenges for prevention program. J Coll Physic Surg Pak. 2007; 16:622-4.

  • 75. World Health Organization. Unsafe injection practices having serious large-scale consequences. Press Release WHO/14. Geneva: WHO: 2000:1-2.

  • 76. Waheed Y Saeed U Safi SZ Chaudhry WN Qadri I. Awareness and risk factors associated with barbers in transmission of hepatitis B and C from Pakistani population: barber’s role in viral transmission. Asian Biomed. 2010; 4:435-42.

  • 77. Khaliq AA Smego RA. Barber shaving and bloodborne disease transmission in developing countries. S Afr Med J. 2005; 95:94-6.

  • 78. Janjua NZ Nizamy MA. Knowledge and Practices of barbers about hepatitis B and C transmission in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. J Pak Med Assoc. 2004; 54: 116-9.

  • 79. Candan F Alagozlu H Poyraz O Sumer H. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection in barbers in Sivas region of Turkey. Occup Med. 2002; 52:31-4.

  • 80. Zahraoui-Mehadji M Baakrim MZ Laraqui S Laraqui O El Kabouss Y Verger C et al. Infectious risks associated with blood exposure for traditional barbers and their customers in Morocco. Sante. 2004; 14:211-6.

  • 81. Alam M Tariq WZ. Knowledge attitudes and practices about hepatitis B and C among young healthy males. Pak J Pathol. 2006; 17:147-50.

  • 82. Talpur AA Memon NA Solangi RA Ghumro AA. Knowledge and attitude of patients towards Hepatitis B and C. Pak J Surg. 2007; 23:162-5.

  • 83. Zuberi BF Zuberi FF Vasvani A Faisal N Afsar S Rehman J et al. Appraisal of the knowledge of internet users of Pakistan regarding hepatitis using on-line survey. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008; 20:91-3.

  • 84. World Health Organization: Hepatitis B. Fact sheet 2000. WHO/204.

  • 85. WHO/UNICEF. Review of National Immunization Coverage.1980-2008. Pakistan. 2009; 7.

  • 86. Raza SA Clifford GM Franceschi S. Worldwide variation in the relative importance of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review. Br J Cancer. 2007; 96:1127-34.

  • 87. Demaria N Manno M Villa E. Sex hormones and liver cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002; 193:59-63.

  • 88. Baig S Siddiqui AA Ahmed W Qureshi H Arif A. The association of complex liver disorder with HBV genotypes prevalent in Pakistan. Virol J. 2007; 4:128.

  • 89. Baig S. Gender Disparity in infections of Hepatitis B virus. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2009; 19:598-600.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor
IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.2
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.293

CiteScore 2018: 0.30

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.172
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.237

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 266 141 10
PDF Downloads 129 68 1