Masculinity as a notion encompasses a number of identities, including psychic and social ones. During the late Victorian and early Edwardian period, masculinity as a construct underwent many changes, which affected notions of work, property ownership, sexuality, as well as power struggle with men-rivals and women. The concept of ‘manliness’ became a new moral code as well as a social imperative. Embracing this ideal was a challenging and testing experience for many men as they negotiated power, privilege and status in both the private and the public spheres of life. The Edwardian age, a transitional time in British history, became preoccupied with the consequences of the Boer Wars, gender formation, imperial policy, economic changes and many other factors. This article explores the paradigms of English masculinity and the construction of male identity as a cultural signifier in Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel The Hound of the Baskervilles and its Russian film adaptation by Igor Maslennikov. Doyle contextualizes multiple facets of masculinity from the normative to the transgressive, from the private to the public, as well as from the effeminate to the manly as his characters are affected by the anxieties and tensions of their society. After an in-depth analysis of manhood in the novel, the focus of the article shifts to Maslennikov’s adaptation and its cinematic use of the literary text, as the film interrogates masculine codes of behavior, relationships with women and the male power struggle represented in the novel. The film becomes a visual interpretation and a powerful enhancement of the narrative’s tensions and concerns.
Adams, James Eli. Dandies and Desert Saints: Styles of Victorian Masculinity. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1995. Print.
Bazin, Andre. “Adaptation, or the Cinema as Digest.” Film Adaptation. Ed. James Naremore. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2000. 19-28. Print.
Cahir, Linda C. Literature into Film: Theory and Practical Approaches. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2006. Print.
Clausson, Nils. “Degeneration, Fin-de-Siècle Gothic, and the Science of Detection: Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Hound of the Baskervilles and the Emergence of the Modern Detective Story.” Journal of Narrative Theory 35:1 (Winter 2005): 60-87. Print.
Doyle, Conan Arthur. The Hound of the Baskervilles. London: Penguin, 2001. Print.
Dyer, Richard. “Male Sexuality and the Media.” Sexuality of Men. Eds. A. Metcalf and M. Humphries. London: Pluto, 1985. 28-43. Print.
Ellis, John. “The Literary Adaptation: An Introduction.” Screen 23.1 (1982): 3-5. Print.
Federico, Annette. Masculine Identity in Hardy and Gissing. London: Associated UP, 1991. Print.
Ferguson, Paul. “Narrative Vision in The Hound of the Baskervilles.” Clues 1 (Fall/Winter 1980): 24-30. Print.
Frank, Lawrence. “The Hound of the Baskervilles, the Man on the Tor, and a Metaphor for the Mind.” Nineteenth-Century Literature 54.3 (Dec. 1999): 336-72. Print.
Gilmore, David D. Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. Print.
Haining, Peter. The Television Sherlock Holmes. London: Virgin, 1994. Print.
Hutcheon, Linda. A Theory of Adaptation. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.
Jahn, Rosemary. Detecting Social Order. New York: Twayne, 1995.
Kestner, Joseph. The Edwardian Detective, 1901-15. Vermont: Ashgate, 2000. Print.
- - -. Sherlock’s Men: Masculinity, Conan Doyle, and Cultural History. Vermont: Ashgate, 1997. Print.
Kissane, James, and John Kissane. “Sherlock Holmes and the Ritual of Reason.” Nineteenth-Century Fiction. 17.4 (Mar. 1963): 353-62. Print.
Klein, Michael, and Gillian Parker. The English Novel and the Movies. New York: Ungar, 1981. Print.
Livanov, Vasily. Interview. Lifestyle: A Russia Journal Publication 2.45 (24 Jan. 2000), n. p. Web. 1 Oct. 2014.
Mangan, James A., and James Walvin, eds. Manliness and Morality: Middle- Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800-1940. New York: St. Martin’s, 1987. Print.
Stam, Robert, and Alessandra Raengo, eds. Literature and Film. A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Film Adaptation. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005. Print.
Tosh, John. A Man’s Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England. New Haven: Yale UP, 1999. Print.
Trodd, Anthea. A Reader’s Guide to Edwardian Literature. Calgary, Canada: U of Calgary P, 1991. Print.
“Vasily Livanov and Vitaly Solomin: The Russian Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson.” 2010. Web. 1 Oct. 2014.
Waters, Karen. The Perfect Gentleman: Masculine Control in Victorian Men’s Fiction, 1870-1901. New York: Lang, 1997. Print.
Williams, Raymond. Politics and Letters. London: New Left, 1979. Print.