Full Access to Cultural Spaces (FACS): Mapping and evaluating museum access services using mobile eye-tracking technology

Francesca Raffi 1
  • 1 University of Macerata, Via Crescinbeni, 30/32, , Macerata, Italy


The present paper aims to present significant results stemming from the FACS (Full Access to Cultural Spaces) project, launched in 2014 by the University of Macerata and concluded in 2016. In particular, this paper reports on stages one and two of the FACS project which aimed first to explore the state of the art of universal access services across a large variety of museums in Italy and nine other EU countries. Based on the first stage, an analysis of some of the most significant data obtained from a questionnaire sent out to over 1,200 European museums will be presented, with a special focus on multilingual devices and access services for the sensory impaired. The first stage was followed by an eye-tracking study on an Italian museum, Turin’s Museo Nazionale del Cinema (National Cinema Museum), aimed at evaluating visitors’ experience, attitudes and patterns of fruition through a test with a portable eye tracker (Tobii Pro Glasses 2, 50 Hz). Based on this second stage, the fruition of information panels by museum visitors at the Museo Nazionale del Cinema will be explored, specifically focusing on reading patterns and behaviours.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • AA.VV. 2015. Conference Proceedings: The Future of Education: 5th Conference. Padova: Libreria Universitaria.

  • Álvarez de Morales Mercado, C. and Jiménez Hurtado, C. 2016. Patrimonio Cultural Para Todos: Investigación Aplicada en Traducción Accesible. Lachar, Granada: Tragacanto.

  • Ang, I. 2005. The Predicament of Diversity: Multiculturalism in Practice at the Art Museum. London Sage.

  • Davidson, B., Heald, C.L. and Hein, G.E. 1991. “Increased Exhibit Accessibility Through Multisensory Interaction.” In Curator: The Museum Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 273-290.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • De Lauretis, T. 1987. Technologies of Gender: Essays on Theory, Film and Fiction. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

  • Díaz Cintas, J. 2005. “Audiovisual Translation Today - A Question of Accessibility for All.” In Translating Today vol 4, pp. 3-5.

  • Díaz Cintas, J., Orero P., and Remael, A. 2007. “Media For All: A Global Challenge.” In: Díaz Cintas, J., P. Orero and A. Remael (eds.) Media for All: Subtitling for the Deaf, Audio Description, and Sign Language. Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 11-20. Dizionario della Lingua Italiana De Mauro Online. 2017. Available at: <https://dizionario.internazionale.it >. [Accessed 15 October 2017]

  • EGMUS (2012). Museum Statistics. Available at: http://www.egmus.eu/nc/en/statistics/complete_data/z/0/. [Accessed 15 October 2017].

  • Falk, J.H. 2016. Identity and The Museum Visitor Experience. London: Routledge.

  • Greco, G.M. 2016. “On Accessibility as a Human Right, with an Application to Media Accessibility.” In: Matamala, A. and P. Orero (eds.). Researching Audio Description New Approaches. Palgrave Macmillan: London, pp. 11-33.

  • Holmqvist, K., Nyström M., Andersson R., Dewurst R., Jarodzka H., Van de Weijer J. 2015. Eye tracking: A Comprehensive Guide to Methods and Measures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Jiménez Hurtado, C., Seibel, C., Soler Gallego, S. and Herrero Díaz, S. 2012. Museums for All: Translation and Interpreting for Multimodal Spaces As a Tool for Universal Accessibility. Universitat d’Alacant. Available at: <http://hdl.handle.net/10045/26955>. [Accessed 15 October 2017].

  • Kawashima, N., 1999. “Knowing the Public: A Review of Museum Marketing Literature and Research.” In Museum Management and Curatorship, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 21-39.

  • Komarac, T. 2014. “A New World for Museum Marketing? Facing the Old Dilemmas While Challenging New Market Opportunities.” In Market-Tržište, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 199-214.

  • Limesurvey GmbH. 2003. Limesurvey: An Open Source Survey Tool. Hamburg, Germany: LimeSurvey GmbH. Available at: <http://www.limesurvey.org>.

  • Mangiron, C., Orero, P. and O’Hagan, M. 2014. Videogame Localisation and Accessibility: Fun for All. Bern: Peter Lang.

  • Mokatren M. and Kuflik, T. 2016. “Exploring the Potential Contribution of Mobile Eye-Tracking Technology in Enhancing the Museum Visit Experience.” In CEUR Workshop Proceedings, pp. 23-31.

  • Nuovo Vocabolario Base della Lingua Italiana De Mauro Online. 2016. Available at: <https://www.internazionale.it/opinione/tullio-de-mauro/2016/12/23/il-nuovo-vocabolario-dibase-della-lingua-italiana>. [Accessed 15 October 2017]

  • Rocque, S., Langevin, J., Chalghoumi, H., Gorayeb, A. 2015. “Universal Accessibility.” In Conference Proceedings - The Future of Education: 5th Conference, Florence, 8-9 June 2017. Padova: Libreria Universitaria, pp. 175-179.

  • Ruiz, B., Pajares, J.L., Utray, F. and Moreno, L. 2011. “Design for All in Multimedia Guides for Museums.” In Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1408-1415.

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • Ryhl, C. 2009. “Architecture for Senses.” In: Vavik, T. (ed.). Inclusive Buildings, Products & Services: Challenges in Universal Design. Trondheim, Norway: Tapir Academic Press, pp. 104-27.

  • Ryhl, C. 2016. “So Much More Than Building Regulations: Universal Design and the Case of Practice.” In: Sørmoen, O., A. Arenghi and I. Garofolo (eds.). Accessibility As a Key Enabling Knowledge for Enhancement of Cultural Heritage. Milano: Franco Angeli, pp. 115-130.

  • Sørmoen, O., Arenghi, A. and Garofolo, I. 2016. Accessibility As a Key Enabling Knowledge for Enhancement of Cultural Heritage. Milano: Franco Angeli.

  • Steinfeld, E. and Maisel, J.L. 2014. Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments. Johanneshov: MTM.

  • UN General Assembly. 2007. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Resolution / adopted by the General Assembly, 24 January 2007, A/RES/61/106. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/45f973632.html. [Accessed 15 October 2017].


Journal + Issues