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Abstract

Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-CMV antibody titre, the presence of genetic material of the virus in the plasma of elderly residents of nursing homes and the impact of the CMV infection on the risk of death.

Material and methods. The number of 202 residents of a nursing home in Warsaw, aged 65 and over, were observed for 1095 days (3 years) between 2015 and 2018. During this period 126 (62.4%) residents died. Plasma CMV DNA levels were assessed using real-time PCR. Anti-CMV antibody titre was measured with the use of commercially available ARCHITECT CMV test.

Results. No genetic material of the CMV was found in the studied group of the residents. The mean IgG titre did not differ between those who survived and those who deceased (p=1). Pearson’s Chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test did not reveal any differences in the rate of deaths among the groups of seronegative, seropositive < 250 IgG [Au/ml], and seropositive > 250 IgG [Au/ml] residents. Kaplan-Meyers survival curves confirmed these results.

Conclusions. We did not demonstrate that CMV infection or the anti-CMV antibody titer have any effect on the risk of death in the study group.

Abstract

Introduction. The nursing profession in Poland is subject to continuous transformations, but it should follow the directions based on the common framework for the development of specialist nursing, drawn up by international specialist nurses associations in Europe. A change in the nursing education system in Poland has provided an opportunity for progress based on consistent framework.

Summary. Nurse education organised in a system of first cycle and second cycle university courses was a milestone towards improving the status of the nursing profession. The improved position of Polish nurses paved the way for further advancements in this profession and in the related scientific research, which in the past was rarely conducted by Polish nurses; today more and more research teams are launched and operate both at universities and in nurses’ scientific associations.

Abstract

Introduction. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the world among chronic diseases. The article discusses the relationship between the quality of life of patients with COPD and the presence of diseases associated mainly with hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The examination includes subjective and holistic assessment of the patient’s health condition, which allows to notice any disorders and defi cits in the functioning of patients with this disease.

Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease depending on the comorbidities.

Material and methods. The study included 319 COPD patients treated in the Lung Diseases Clinic with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study was conducted using a diagnostic survey method and analyzing medical records. The research tool assessing patients quality of life was the SGRQ questionnaire (Saint George Hospital Questionaire).

Results. Respondents who had a myocardial infarction had a slightly lower quality of life in the “Impact on life subscale” (p = 0.047). It was noted that patients with hypertension had a lower quality of life in the domain of “Activity” (p<0.05) and “Impact on life” (p<0.001). However, with hyperlipidemia, a lower quality of life was noticeable in the “Symptoms” (p<0.001) and “Impact on life” subscale (p = 0.002).

Conclusions. Exacerbation of symptoms in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a history of myocardial infarction, hypertension and hyperlipidemia are signifi cantly related to the decreased quality of life of patients. Prevention of these civilization diseases can prevent deterioration of the quality of life of patients.

Abstract

Aim. The purpose of the paper was to learn about nursing and nutritional problems in children with lactose intolerance.

Material and methods. The study included a group of 343 parents, 320 (93.3%) women and 23 (6.7%) men. A self-written questionnaire containing 27 questions was used for the study. The comparison of responses in the groups was performed using the chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test where the expected low rates appeared in the tables. The analysis was performed in the R software, version 4.0.2.

Results. The most common symptoms affecting the respondents’ children were: abdominal pain (77.3%), abdominal distension (73.5%), overflow in the abdomen (49%), and mucus-mixed stools (45.5%). The symptoms caused the child’s anxiety during sleep in 52.5%, problems with attaching to the breast in 30.3%, and buttocks burns in 23.9%. Statistical analysis confirmed a significant relationship between education and age and the source from which the respondents obtained information on lactose intolerance (p <0.05). Statistical analysis showed that the financial situation had no effect on calcium supplementation in breastfeeding women while on a lactose-free diet (p> 0.05). It is worth noting, however, that only 10.5% of the respondents declared calcium supplementation while on a lactose-free diet.

Conclusions. It is important to confirm the diagnosis with an examination, as an incorrect diagnosis may lead to a number of problems without obtaining the desired effect. In children with symptoms of lactose intolerance, meeting the daily calcium requirement is essential.

Abstract

Acinetobacter species, particularly those within Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–A. baumannii complex (ACB complex), have emerged as clinically relevant pathogens in hospital environments worldwide. Early and quick detection and identification of Acinetobacter infections is challenging, and traditional culture and biochemical methods may not achieve adequate levels of speciation. Moreover, currently available techniques to identify and differentiate closely related Acinetobacter species are insufficient. The objective of this review is to recapitulate the current evolution in phenotypic and automated techniques used to identify the ACB complex. Compared with other automated or semiautomated systems of bacterial identification, matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) demonstrates a high level of Acinetobacter species identification and discrimination, including newly discovered species A. seifertii and A. dijkshoorniae.

Abstract

Background

Association between early diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and low morbidity and mortality rate has been proven. Thus, tools for early CKD diagnosis are vital. Ultrasonography has been widely used to diagnose and monitor the progression of CKD.

Objectives

To determine the performance of selected renal ultrasonographic parameters for the diagnosis of early CKD.

Methods

In a cohort of patients diagnosed with CKD (n = 100), diagnostic performance of ultrasonographically measured renal length (RL), renal cortical thickness (RCT), and parenchymal thickness (PT) was determined using receiver operating curve analysis; correlation of each parameter with the associated comorbidities and serum creatinine (Scr) levels was also determined. Severity of CKD was graded with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR).

Results

Of all patient participants, 85 had severity grades 2 or 3. Mean (standard deviation) Scr was 1.88 (0.60) mg/dL; eGFR was 43.3 (11.85) mL/min/1.73 m2. RL was 9.01 (0.83) cm, PT was 1.32 (0.22) cm, and RCT was 6.0 (0.10) mm. PT and RCT were positively correlated with eGFR (P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Early CKD was better predicted by PT (area under the curve (AUC) 0.735; 82% sensitivity; 30% specificity; 68% positive predictive value (PPV)) and RCT (AUC 0.741; 82% sensitivity; 48% specificity; 51% PPV); severe CKD was better predicted by RL (AUC 0.809; 67% sensitivity; 26% specificity, 45% PPV; 13% negative predictive value).

Conclusion

Index ultrasonic parameters show a diagnostic role in different stages of CKD. The index ultrasound and biochemical parameters showed a complementary role in predicting renal dysfunction.

Abstract

Dengue virus infection most commonly has mild-to-moderate nonspecific clinical presentations that overlap with other diseases. Dengue-specific tests are commonly used for those patients with acute febrile illness in dengue-endemic areas. There is one study in vitro that showed a false-positive dengue-immunoglobulin M (dengue IgM) test for blood from a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we demonstrated a false-positive dengue IgM test in a patient with SLE. The patient had fever, cytopenia, and a skin rash, but her clinical variables more closely matched with the criteria for SLE than the dengue infection. Vasculitis-like-lesions supported prednisolone administration and her clinical symptoms improved. This case highlights that some patients with SLE can be misdiagnosed as having a viral infection. These two diseases have similar clinical findings, such as acute febrile illness, but they are different in terms of their treatments and disease prognosis.

Abstract

Background

Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is an undifferentiated carcinoma, usually localized to the midline and presenting a translocation in the gene for bromodomain containing protein 4. Here, we report a rare case of NMC in an 8-year-old Turkish boy.

Case report

There were masses in the lung, liver, and iliac wing representing metastases. Abdominal lymph node sampling revealed epithelial tumor infiltration with cellular pleomorphism. Immunohistochemistry was strongly positive for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen protein. Because of undifferentiated carcinoma morphology, the tumor was considered to be a NMC. Immunoreactivity with antibodies to NUT and the presence of NUT clarified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) supported the diagnosis. Despite initial response to chemotherapy, the patient died 7 months after the diagnosis.

Conclusions

Immunoreactivity for NUT antibodies along with a dual-color FISH and karyotype analysis was suggestive for diagnosis of NMC. In differential diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinomas that occur particularly at midline localization, NMC should be considered.

Abstract

Background

β-Catenin mediates cellular adhesion and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling mechanism, thereby controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Studies of endometrial tissue suggest that there are differences in β-catenin expression during the course of regular menstrual cycles. However, differences in expression in squamous epithelial cells between the proliferative and secretory phases have hitherto remained unknown.

Objectives

To localize β-catenin in squamous epithelial cells in cervicovaginal smears during the course of regular menstrual cycles.

Methods

In this observational study, smears were taken from women (n = 102) with various gynecological complaints. Squamous epithelial cells were stained using a Papanicolaou method to evaluate their cytology and any infection. An anti-β-catenin antibody was used to localize immunoreactivity in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and/or nucleus.

Results

Women with a regular menstrual cycle (n = 62) were divided into 2 groups: those in a proliferative phase (26/62, 42%) and those in a secretory phase (36/62, 58%). Cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin immunoreactivity was observed prominently in the proliferative phase (19/26, 73%), whereas low-level β-catenin immunoreactivity was seen in the secretory phase (9/36, 25%). Compared with the secretory phase, the mean H-scores for β-catenin immunoreactivity in the proliferative phase were significantly increased in the membrane (P = 0.039), the cytoplasm (P < 0.001), and the nucleus (P = 0.033). By contrast, β-catenin immunoreactivity was reduced from parabasal to superficial cells in both the proliferative and secretory phases.

Conclusions

Cytoplasmic and/or nuclear β-catenin immunoreactivity may indicate that the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is cycle dependent.