Heroes play a role in every nation's founding narrative, embodying a group's strength and courage, its dedication to protecting all within its fold, and its most important traditions and promises. Yet hero images and tropes have not received the attention they deserve in the social science literature on nations and nationalism. Recent theories of character work – the rhetorical construction of heroes, villains, victims, and minions – reveal the challenges of building an inclusive nationalism in post-colonial states. We engage the debates over some of Namibia's most prominent and contested heroes through the memorials dedicated to them and the commemorations honoring victims of past struggles. We study the victims that these heroes sought to defend and trace the process by which victims become heroes of endurance. The Namibian state has, after its recent independence, constructed a memorial to fallen heroes, Heroes Acre, and an Independence Memorial Museum. Alongside these state-sanctioned memorial sites, a range of citizens have sought to honor and defend their own heroes. By honoring different heroes, they have defined alternative understandings of the nation. We also demonstrate the power of victims in mobilizing present day campaigns for justice and reparations. In Namibia, as elsewhere, greater attention to victims could shift the balance of political power. This article demonstrates how a focus on struggles over the legitimacy of particular heroes and victims can provide unanticipated insights into the study of divided nationalism.
Does increasing immigration change the nature of language politics in a party system underpinned by ethnic valence strategies? This paper utilizes qualitative data to illustrate the manner in which debates on linguistic pluralism have become enmeshed in the politics of ethnic defense in Northern Ireland. It will be shown that language politics in this context is driven by the powerful pull of bi-national considerations. This is despite the fact that migrant languages have become increasingly common in the territory. The research provides insight into the manner in which ethnically defined parties have engaged with multicultural diversity, in the context of increasing immigration. It is shown that Sinn Féin representatives largely ignore discussions about wider language diversity, preferring to focus on narratives related to Gaelic. The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) tends to utilize the broadened range of minority languages as a shield to repel nationalist demands for greater state support for Gaelic programs. The analysis of this evidence suggests that ethnically defined parties are ill-suited to the demands of a multicultural society and immigration-generated diversity.
In der deutschsprachigen Forschungslandschaft bildet sich derzeit eine kulturwissenschaftliche Pflanzenforschung (Plant Studies) heraus, die auf den neueren Untersuchungen der Botanik und Philosophie zu Pflanzen fußt und die theoretischen Grundlagen mit denen des Ecocriticism und der Animal Studies teilt. Zentrale Strömungen und aktuelle Tendenzen werden ebenso vorgestellt, wie auch der aktuelle Forschungsstand mit dem Fokus auf der kulturwissenschaftlichen Germanistik.
This article presents a comprehensive analysis of changes in urban development (including certain types of public buildings) and changes in the routes of Lviv’s tram lines over the last 80 years, related to the territorial and demographic development of the city. For this purpose, maps comparing these elements of urban infrastructure between 1932 and 2016 were developed. The analysis was carried out based on a plan of Lviv from 1932, contemporary vector data taken from OpenStreetMap, ArcGIS basemaps, Google Street View panoramic images, information contained in interwar Lviv guides, and supplementary information from other sources.
In the modern world of mass information being reduced to colourful images, maps have the chance to become a medium that transmits important information in an attractive format. Due to time pressure, many cartographic publications that have a short life span on the internet contain a lot of methodological errors. Viewers receive an image that is hard to interpret, incomplete or even incorrect. The author aims to summarize and classify the cartographic content of social media, while bearing methodology, the role of the cartographer and users’ reactions to that content in mind. The springboard to online discussion is mainly a map topic. Their design or methodology is of little interest in most cases. This may be due to insufficient knowledge of how forms (their correctness and quality) shape messages. Hence the role of the cartographer is important, what can be seen – among methodological remarks – as one of conclusions. It seems that map-makers are becoming more expert, and are guiding map lovers and amateur cartographers towards creating good, effective and elegant maps.
The aim of the study presented in this article is to identify and analyse the problems which arise when creating a 3D model based on two-dimensional data and its import into a game engine and then developing algorithms to automate this process. The authors decided that they would use the Unity game engine to create an application presenting the results of modelling the interior of the Main Building of the Warsaw University of Technology. The work was divided into stages in which problems related to the adopted method were identified and the automation of selected activities was suggested. The main tasks performed during the study included processing the source data into a 3D model along with the correction of errors made during this process, detailing the model by adding characteristic elements of the building’s interior, and creating the so-called game scene in the Unity game engine along with the implementation of the application’s behaviour. The developed software can be integrated with indoor navigation systems, and the implemented scripts can be used during the preparation of other models.
Der Beitrag diskutiert zwei Aufsätze Walter Benjamins, die mit Blick auf die jüngere Original-Kopie-Debatte von großer Bedeutung sind. Benjamin hat in seinem ‚Übersetzer‘-Aufsatz von 1923 und in seinem ‚Kunstwerk‘-Aufsatz von 1939 zwei Begriffe eingeführt, die von hoher transkriptionstheoretischer Relevanz sind und die dort beide jeweils im Zentrum der Argumentation stehen: ‚Aura‘ und ‚Widerhall‘. Unter je spezifischer Perspektive fokussiert Benjamin anhand dieser Begriffe ein grundlegendes kunst- und medientheoretisches Problem – das Problem des Verhältnisses von ‚Original‘ und ‚Fortleben‘ des Originals, wobei ‚Fortleben‘ einmal als Übersetzung und zum anderen als technische Reproduktion verhandelt wird. Transkriptionstheoretische Überlegungen im Ausgang von diesen in Benjamins Werk zentralen theoretischen Begriffen erlauben es, das Verhältnis von ‚Original‘ und ‚Kopie‘ neu in den Blick zu nehmen.