Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 46 items for :

Clear All
Open access

Magdalena Drąg

Abstract

The article takes up an attempt to present the changes that has occurred in the water management at the beginning of the 21st century in the area of Silesian Voivoideship. Communes situated within the boundaries of Klodnica catchment, closed by the section of Gliwice, were analysed as an example of water management in the area which undergoes a strong anthropopression. Klodnica catchment is an area where all the elements of the geographical environment were transformed, but it was the water environment that was changed most visibly. At the beginning of the 21st century, there were a lot of changes conducted in Poland, not only political, but also in the economic and legal sectors. Owing to these factors, the following changes appeared: water consumption, the structure of distribution of water among different branches of economy and the water and sewage system infrastructure. The effect of these changes is the decrease in water consumption and sewage discharge as well as upgrading the technologies of its treatment (Absalon 2007).

Open access

Jan Adamowski and Johannes Halbe

Participatory water resources planning and management in an Agriculturally Intensive Watershed in Quebec, Canada using Stakeholder Built System Dynamics Models

The participation of stakeholders is an important component in integrated and adaptive watershed planning and management. In Quebec, Canada watershed organizations are in the process of implementing participatory based watershed planning and management schemes. However, there is a lack of simple and readily implementable frameworks and methods to explicitly involve stakeholders, as well as integrate physical and social processes, in watershed planning and management in Quebec. This paper describes the application of the first three stages of a newly proposed five stage stepwise Participatory Model Building framework that was developed to help facilitate the participatory investigation of problems in watershed planning and management through the use of qualitative system dynamics models. In the agriculturally intensive Du Chene watershed in Quebec, eight individual stakeholder interviews were conducted in cooperation with the local watershed organization to develop qualitative system dynamics models that represent the main physical and social processes in the Du Chene watershed. The proposed Participatory Model Building framework was found to be accessible for all the interviewees, and was deemed to be very useful by the watershed organization to develop an overview of the different perspectives of the main stakeholders in the watershed, as well as to help develop watershed policies and strategies. The individual qualitative system dynamics models developed in this study can subsequently be converted into an overall group built system dynamics model (describing the socio-economic-political components of the watershed), which in turn can be quantified and coupled with a physically based model such as HEC-HMS or SWAT (describing the physical components of the watershed).

Open access

Agnieszka Kowalczyk, Stanisław Twardy and Antoni Kuźniar

Permanent turf grass as the factor alleviating water erosion in the Carpathian Mountains

Soil erosion by water is an important economical issue, because it strongly degrades the environment. This phenomenon occurs in the Carpathian mountain areas, and it is caused largely by inappropriate land use. And in the last quarter of the century, in whole region significant structural changes took place - an increase of grassland areas. Research was made in the period of 2008-2010 in the Biała Woda catchment area (10.91 km2) - the Carpathian Mts. The study area under discussion is characterised by low share of arable lands and by high contribution of the permanent grasslands. In this paper the mass of eroded materials was determined by applying of the universal soil losses equation - USLE (Wischeier and Smith, 1978), using main factors, which have the impact on shaping the catchment area e.g. geological structure, terrain relief, the soil, climate, particularly precipitation, land use and slopes. Main attention was focused on agricultural land use (grasslands), hydrographical and road network. Sometimes the field roads becomes streams (gullies, which create favourable conditions for linear erosion e.g. for transporting eroded material during, heavy rainfall. Therefore, structural- spatial changes which now are taking place sometimes intensify the erosion process.

Open access

Andrzej Skwierawski and Marcin Sidoruk

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to determine the level of contamination of the bottom deposits in the former lake Plociduga in Olsztyn by selected heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd). Today Plociduga is a transformed wetland ecosystem, surrounded by urbanized areas (residential housing, industrial development). The main point sources of pollution are the outlets of two storm water drains. The study was conducted in 2009. Samples of bottom deposit cores were collected in two separate parts (northern and southern) of the former lake. The study revealed very high concentrations of lead, zinc and chromium in the uppermost layer of the sediments in the part of the ecosystem fed by rainwater. The concentrations of the analyzed elements were substantially lower in deeper sediment layers and in the samples collected in the southern part of the ecosystem, not exposed to the direct pollutant inflow. The accumulation of heavy metals in the surface layers of bottom deposits is indicative of the poor ecological condition of the investigated ecosystem and increased human pressure resulting from progressive urbanization.

Open access

Ying-Ying Xu and Jiu-Nian Guan

Abstract

China is the largest swine production country in the world. The fast development has consequently brought various environmental issues which have already seriously threatened the environmental quality. This study is aimed to measure the concentrations of NH3 in the pig houses in the selected pig farm, try to conclude characteristics on the concentration change and the correlation between the concentrations and the environmental factors. The NH3 concentration was monitored in two fattening pig houses. The concentrations fluctuated between 11.0 and 26.9 ppm, 11.0 and 28.5 ppm respectively during the measurement periods, peaking at the early morning and in the afternoon before cleaning. The concentrations of NH3 correlated to the indoor temperature in winter, whereas, there was no correlation between relative humidity and NH3 concentrations.

Open access

Hamid Bouchelkia, Fadila Belarbi and Boualem Remini

Abstract

The sediment transport in rivers in Algeria is very high. However, it is poorly quantified in some wadis because of the absence and the shortage of data especially the concentration of fine particles and also the unavailability of gauging stations. To fill this gap, a technique for estimating sediment yield, based on data recorded at the gauging station has been developed. The estimation of suspended sediment yield was conducted by a statistical analysis with double correlation on average daily flow and solid concentrations. The results obtained by applying this model to the watershed Chellif are very encouraging because the correlation coefficients of the found models are between 61% and 91% for the first correlation and between 86% and 97% for the second correlation. The estimated quantity of suspended sediment load is between 2.35 and 4.12 million tonnes per year, it appears important; This is due to the vulnerability of the Chellif basin facing erosion, the importance of its area and the importance of fluid flows in wadi Cheliff and its torrential regime. Mention here some of the results and their significance to the study.

Open access

Piotr Ilnicki, Ryszard Farat, Krzysztof Górecki and Piotr Lewandowski

Abstract

The variability of the mean annual air temperature and precipitation totals in three periods: 1848–2010, 1951–2010 and 1981–2010 was investigated in the large Warta River basin, being the area with lowest rainfall in Poland. For the purposes of research, nine meteorological stations with the longest measurement series were selected. Air temperature increase in this river basin was similar than in neighbouring countries. In the last 30 years this trend kept increasing. The precipitation in the whole studied period was slightly increasing in the northern part of the Warta River basin, but decreasing in the southern part. The mean annual precipitation totals in the catchment area did not change visible. In the period 1981–2010, the precipitation totals show a small increase in the winter and spring and a decrease in summer. A negative influence of this climate change was not visible in the Warta River discharge. The main objectives of this study were the collection long-term records of air temperature and precipitation in the Warta River basin, and the statistical analysis of climate variability.

Open access

Izabela Pietrusiewicz, Agnieszka Cupak, Andrzej Wałęga and Bogusław Michalec

Abstract

The paper presents the results of using two models: a conceptual model of Wackermann and a NRCS-UH synthetic unit hydrograph, for flow calculation in uncontrolled catchment of the Słonka, Poland. These models were chosen because of simplicity of models’ parameters evaluation, what is important from engineering calculation point of view. Flows with the probability of exceed amounting to 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% and for different levels of the catchment moisture were evaluated.

The flood waves generated in the Wackermann model were characterized by a short duration (over 2 hours), shorter concentration time (about 1 hour), and by about 70% higher peak flow values than those generated using the NRCS-UH method. A common feature of both methods were higher values of peak flows for the third level of the catchment moisture, as compared to the second level. It is also worth noticing that in both methods no flood wave was generated for the probabilities of 10, 20 and 50% and for the second level of the catchment moisture. It was assumed that hydrographs made with use Wackermann model better describe flood wave in mountain river, which Słonka is.

Open access

Dorota Pusłowska-Tyszewska, Janusz Kindler and Sylwester Tyszewski

Elements of water management planning according to EU Water Framework Directive in the catchment of Upper Narew

Analysis of the national and regional plans shows that the current year, 2006, shall determine the key lines of national and regional development practically till 2015, that means till the time when, under the Water Framework Directive, Poland should have achieved its major objectives. This year shall witness decision making not only on the key objectives, priority strategies and measures undertaken for social and economic development of the country and regions, but also allocation of the main streams of funds from the EU and public funds from national sources. This is a sort of challenge for administration bodies responsible for water management, particularly in respect of programming water management tasks and their incorporation into documents which are strategic for development on national and regional level. Over 2006-2008 efforts of water management administration bodies should be focused on incorporation of water management issues into the consecutive edition of the National Ecological Policy and environmental protection programmes - at regional level, to be followed by county and community levels. This paper is a part of the broad stream of methodology and pilot work on the implementation of provisions of the Water Framework Directive in Poland. The main body of the paper consists of the summary of work done for the pilot river basin of Upper Narew.

Open access

Izabela Bojakowska, Dariusz Lech and Jadwiga Jaroszyńska

Abstract

The Służew Stream, a 14.9 km long watercourse, is part of an ancient river called Sadurka that starts its course in the Warsaw district of Ochota and flows into the Wilanów Lake. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the watercourse received industrial and municipal sewage from Warsaw and its environs, but nowadays only rain and snow meltwater is discharged into the stream. Freshwater sediments of five reservoirs in the catchment area of the Służew Stream - Wilanów Lake, Powsinów Lake, Pond in the Horse Racing area, Lake at Morgi and South Pond in the Wilanów Park - were analysed for the contents of Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Hg. The following concentrations have been determined: chromium - from 5 to 274 mg/kg, copper - from 5 to 274 mg/kg, lead - from 3 to 310 mg/kg, zinc - from 44 to 1430 mg/kg, nickel - from 3 to 55 mg/kg, cadmium - from 0.3 to 37.3 mg/kg and mercury - from 0.010 to 0.810 mg/kg (Fig. 2-5). The studies have shown that water sediments of Pond in the Horse Racing area, South Pond and Wilanów Lake, supplied by the Służew Stream waters, are characterised by a very high content of heavy metals. In contrast, water sediments of Powsinów Lake and Lake at Morgi, recharged by drainage ditches flowing into the stream, are characterised by much lower concentrations of these elements, but the levels are still much greater than the geochemical background.