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Ilze Grāvīte, Edīte Kaufmane, Laila Ikase and Edgars Cirša

Abstract

All growers prefer to obtain a first harvest as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to identify an effective tree training system for new Latvian plum cultivars, which provides the highest yield and fruit quality. The trial was established in 2012 at the Institute of Horticulture (formerly Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing) and included cultivars ‘Ance’, ‘Adelyn’, and ‘Sonora’; and the controls ‘Victoria’ and ‘Jubileum’. Planting distances were 4 × 2.5 m, and the rootstock was Prunus cerasifera. Tree training was done using four systems: two systems with branch bending (Heka espalier and spindle); and two systems without bending (standard (round) and flat crown). Evaluation of average fruit weight and yield per trunk cross section area (TCSA) was done from 2015 to 2017. The Heka espalier and spindle systems had first yield in 2015, but systems without bending had first yield only in 2016. Average yield per TCSA was significantly higher for the Heka espalier system (0.49 kg·cm−2) than for the spindle system (0.24 kg·cm−2), standard crown system (0.17 kg·cm−2), and flat crown system (0.30 kg·cm−2). Cultivar ‘Victoria’ had the highest yield among all systems. Average fruit size showed the same results: the biggest fruits were obtained with the Heka espalier system, and the smallest for systems without bending in the standard crown.

Open access

Laila Ikase, Edgars Rubauskis and Zanda Rezgale

Abstract

A trial was established in 2011 with five rootstocks - MTT1, MTT4 and control B.9 (1.5 × 4 m, five replications with two trees), MTT5 and control MM.106 (2.5 × 5 m, six replications with two trees), and two cultivars - ‘Auksis’ and ‘Gita’. The evaluated parameters were: tree general condition, flowering, and yielding intensity (points), number of root suckers, average yield (kg·tree-1), yield per trunk cross section area (g·cm-2), average fruit mass (g), and amount of non-standard fruits (%). A randomised fruit sample from each cultivar-rootstock combination was put into storage, and a panel taste was performed once each season. A snowless winter occurred in 2013/2014, when soil froze to 1.5 m depth, which was critical for MM.106. Other rootstocks did not show injury. The best results were obtained for MTT4, which was similar to that of M.26 in Finland. Its vigour was similar to MM.106, and start of bearing to B.9. Rootstock MTT5 was initially grouped with medium vigour MM.106, as having 60-80 % of vigour of ‘Antonovka’ seedlings in Finland. Yet in our trial, it had vigour and start of bearing was similar to that of B.9 or slightly larger, depending on cultivar; it has a tendency to form root suckers. MTT1, ranged with B.9 in Finland, had too weak vigour. The most promising cultivar-rootstock combination was ‘Gita’ on MTT4.

Open access

Pavel Davidek, Ross Andel and Alena Kobesova

( Figure 2 ), the sitting exercise ( Figure 3 ) and the squat exercise ( Figure 4 ). Figure 1 Quadruped Exercise - Instructions: Focus on proper hand support; i.e., the thenar and hypothenar areas must be equally loaded. Shoulder blades must adhere to the rib cage with medial borders nearly parallel to the spine; elongate the whole spine, keep the thoracolumbar junction firm and stable, focus on even activation of all sections of the abdominal wall. Shift the trunk forward and backward. Figure 2 Side Sitting Exercise - Instructions: Focus on the

Open access

Mihai-Florin Ostafi, Florin Dinulică and Valeriu-Norocel Nicolescu

dominant ( Rink and Phelps, 1989 ), without excluding a substantial genetic gain acquired by selection ( Woeste, 2002 ). The same dominant contribution of environment to heartwood formation was also determined in the case of radiata pine Pinus radiata D. Don ( Nicholls and Brown, 1974 ) while genetics (not environment) plays a massive role in heartwood variability in larch Larix sp. ( Pâques, 2001 ). Genetic improvement of walnut wood aims at producing a darker wood in the largest proportion of transverse section of the trunk. Accordingly, the main selection