. Nemeth E. Essential oil composition of species in the genus Achillea. J Essent Oil Res 2005; 17:501-512. 5. Bimbiraitė K, Ragažinskienė O, Maruška A, Kornyšova O. Comparison of the chemical composition of four yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L.) morphotypes. Biologija 2008; 54(3):208-212. 6. European Pharmacopoeia 8th ed. Millefolii herba . 01/2008:1382. European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Health Care (EDQM), Council of Europe, Strasbourg 2008. 7. Wichtl M. Millefolii herba in: Wichtl M. (ed.), Herbal Drugs and
Katarzyna Bączek, Olga Kosakowska, Jarosław L. Przybył, Paula Kuźma, Marcin Ejdys, Mieczysław Obiedziński and Zenon Węglarz
Mina Kahvand and Mostafa Malecky
This study aimed at determining the chemical composition of sage essential oil (SEO) and yarrow essential oil (YEO), and investigate in vitro their impacts on gas production kinetics, ruminal digestibility and fermentation, and rumen methanogenesis at different dosages (0, 250, 500 and 750 mg L-1 for SEO; and 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg L−1 for YEO). Alpha-pinene and 1,8 cineol were two major constituents of both SEO and YEO. Both SEO and YEO had a linear and quadratic effect on asymptotic gas production (P<0.05). The gas production rate increased linearly with SEO and curve-linearly with YEO dosages (P<0.05). In vitro degradability of dry matter and organic matter decreased only by YEO. The partitioning factor (PF) and the microbial biomass (MB) decreased and increased linearly with YEO and SEO dosages, respectively (P<0.05). Total volatile fatty acids (VFA ) were not affected by SEO, but decreased in a linear and quadratic manner with YEO dosage (P<0.05). The VFA pattern was modified in a linear and quadratic manner by both SEO and YEO (P<0.05). Ammonia concentration increased linearly only with YEO increasing doses. The methane to total gas (TG) ratio decreased quadratically only by SEO with reductions of 6.7, 13 and 4.2% at the doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg L−1, respectively. These results revealed that SEO modifies the rumen fermentation positively towards producing more MB and less methane in the dose range of 0-750 mg L−1, however, YEO adversely affected the rumen fermentation at all the tested doses.
Jozo Rogosic, Tomislav Saric and Ivan Zupan
. France. Forster H.B. Niklas H., Lutz S. (1980). Antispasmodic effects of some medicinal plants. Planta Medica, 40: 309-319. Johnson P., Gerbolini A., Ethridge D . Britton C., Ueckert D. (1999). Economics of redbeny juniper control in the Texas rolling plains. J. Range Manag., 52: 569-574. Nagy J.G., Steinhoff H.W, Ward G.M (1964). Effects of essential oils of sagebrush on deer rumen microbial function. J. Wildl. Manage. 28: 785-790. Nemeth E.Bernath J. (2008). Biological activities of yarrow species
Milan Matić, Verica Đuran, Marina Jovanović, Zorica Gajinov, Aleksandra Matić, Branislav Đuran, Boža Pal and Neda Mimica-Dukić
antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extracts of Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. (Asteraceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2003;87:215-20. 9. Stojanović G, Radulović N, Hashimoto T, Palić R. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts of four Achillea species: the composition of Achillea clavennae L. (Asteraceae) extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;101:185-90. 10. Gale T. Yarrow: encyclopedia of alternative medicine, 2006. eNotes.com. 2006. 26 Jan, 2007. Available from: http://health.enotes.com/alternative-medicine-encyclopedia/yarrow
P. Váczi, E. Čonková, D. Marcinčáková and Z. Sihelská
The antifungal activities of 14 selected essential oils (at the concentrations of 0.5 %, 5 %, and 30 %) against the yeast Malassezia pachydermatis (18 isolates and one reference strain) were investigated. The isolates of M. pachydermatis were obtained from swabs of external ear canals of healthy dogs using sterile swabs. The determination of the efficacy was based on a modified disc diffusion method (CLSI M44-A2). The best antifungal efficacy (100 %) was shown by clove, cinnamon and oregano at the concentration of 30 %; less significant efficacy was shown at the concentration of 5 % (38 %, 33 % and 5 %, respectively). Satureja inhibited the growth of Malassezia (efficacy of 16 %) only at the concentration of 30 %. Bergamot, lavender, juniper, cedar, sage, tea-tree, grapefruit, pine, chamomile and yarrow essential oils were not able to form inhibition zones as defined in the methodology used (greater or equal to 15 mm) in all concentrations used. Therefore, according to the interpretation criterion, they were considered ineffective. In all cases, the concentration of 0.5 % was not effective against the growth of Malassezia yeasts.
Magdalena Tomaszewska-Sowa, Mirosław Kobierski, Anna Katarzyna Sawilska and Anna Figas
Introduction: The high concentration of some trace elements in medicinal plants may lowering the value of herbal material, and may cause poisoning effects.
Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the content of trace elements in the organs of: sandy everlasting, yarrow and stinging nettle.
Methods: In the soil samples, the grain size composition, pH, the content of carbon and nitrogen were determined. In the plant material and for the soil samples, the total contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb were assayed. The values of the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor were also calculated.
Results: The concentration of metals in plant tissues followed in order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Hg. The studied species of medicinal plants accumulated mainly Zn, Pb and Hg. It was also shown a high Hg mobility and a low Pb mobility which mainly accumulated in the roots.
Conclusions: As our research shows the plants used in phytotherapy, should come from plantations monitored for toxic heavy metals in soil.
F. Bubel, Z. Dobrzański, A. Gaweł, K. Pogoda-Sewerniak and E.R. Grela
An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C – standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with preparations: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3 – humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne preparation affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l).
Walter Daryl Jones
. (2008): Land valuation increases from recreational opportunity: a study of Mississippi rural land sales. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. 60: 49-53. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1992): Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems. Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 552 p. RICHARDSON, C. - YARROW, G. - SMATHERS, W. (1992): Economic impact of hunting on rural communities in South Carolina. Clemson Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv. Publ. 26
Nikola M. Stojanović, Pavle J. Randjelović and Niko S. Radulović
. Pejović A, Denić MS, Stevanović D, et al. Discovery of anxiolytic 2-ferrocenyl-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones exerting GABAA receptor interaction via the benzodiazepine-binding site. Eur J Med Chem 2014; 83: 57-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.05.062 12. Radulović NS, Dekić MS, Randjelović PJ, et al. Toxic essential oils: Anxiolytic, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties of the yarrow Achillea umbellate Sibth. et Sm. (Asteraceae) volatiles. Food ChemToxicol 2012; 50: 2016-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.03.047 13. Gould TD, O'Donnell KC
Kristal K. Trejo, Julio B. Clempner and Alexander S. Poznyak
stackelberg security game with random strategies based on the extraproximal theoretic approach, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 37: 145-153. Vickers, J. and Yarrow., G. (1998). Privatization-An Economic Analysis, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. von Stackelberg, H. (1934). Marktform und Gleichgewicht, Springer, Vienna