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Xiaohui Lu, Wei Li, Xianwen Lu, Mingjiang Jin, Na Min and Xuejun Jin

of dislocations in the relaxation behavior of Ti-Ni martensite, Acta Mater. 56 , 632-641 (2008). [59] M.R. Barnett, N. Stanford, A. Ghaderi, F. Siska, Plastic relaxation of the internal stress induced by twinning, Acta Mater. 61 , 7859-7867 (2013). [60] J.P. Hirth, R.C. Pond, Compatibility and accommodation in displacive phase transformations, Prog. Mater. Sci. 56 , 586-636 (2011). [61] A.I. Tyshchenko, W. Theisen, A. Oppenkowski, S. Siebert, O.N. Razumova, A.P. Skoblika, V.A. Sirosha, Yu.N. Petrova, V.G. Gavriljuka, Low-temperature martensitic

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J. Kowalska, W. Ratuszek, M. Witkowska, A. Zielińska-Lipiec and M. Kowalski

-26Mn-3Si-3Al Alloy During Cold-Rolling and Annealing, J. Alloys Comp. vol. 615 Suppl. 1 , S583–S586 (2014). [14] J.-B. Seol, J.E. Jung, Y.W. Jang, C.G. Park, Influence of Carbon Content on the Microstructure, Martensitic Transformation and Mechanical Properties in Austenite/ε-Martensite Dual-Phase Fe-Mn-C Steels, Acta Mater. 61 558-578 (2013). [15] H. Idrissi, K. Renard, L. Rueland, D. Schyvers, P.J. Jacques, On the Mechanism of Twin Formation in Fe-Mn-C TWIP Steels, Acta Mater. 58 2464-2476 (2010). [16] C. Hyoung Cheol., S. Hong Chul, C

Open access

M.J. Szczerba

Abstract

The self-accommodated non-modulated martensite of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal was studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy in the latter case using the electron backscatter diffraction technique. Three kinds of interfaces existing at different length scales were reported. The first, is the wavy and incoherent interface separating martensite variants observed on the micro-level with no-common crystallographic plane between them. The second is within a single martensite plate where the lattice rotates around one of the {110} pole to accommodate the interfacial curvature between martensite plates. Finally, at the nanoscale the third interface exists, a twin boundary separating internal nanotwins with the {112} type habit plane.

Open access

N. Min, H.M. Li, CH. Xie and X.C. Wu

.A. Sirosha, Yu.N. Petrova, V.G. Gavriljuk, Low-temperature martensitic transformation and deep cryogenic treatment of a tool steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527 , 7027-7039 (2010). [31] G.T. Eldies, M. Cohen, Strength of initially virgin martensites at −196°C after aging and tempering, Metall. Trans. A 14 , 1007-1012 (1983).

Open access

A. Grajcar, B. Grzegorczyk, M. Różański, S. Stano and M. Morawiec

REFERENCES [1] A. Lisiecki, Metals 5 (1), 54-69 (2015). [2] D.M. Janicki, Solid State Phenom. 199 , 587-592 (2013). [3] Y. Miyashita, Handbook of laser welding technologies, chapter 16: Developments in twin-beam laser welding technology, 2013. [4] J. Milberg, A. Trautmann, Production Process: Research and Development 3 (1), 9-15 (2009). [5] W. Chen, P. Molian, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 39 , 889-897 (2008). [6] S. Pang, W. Chen, J. Zhou, D. Liao, J. Mater. Proc. Technol. 217 , 131-143 (2015). [7] A. Kokosza, J

Open access

M. Łazarska, T.Z. Woźniak, Z. Ranachowski, P. Ranachowski and A. Trafarski

Abstract

During the course of the study it involved tool steel C105U was used. The steel was austempered at temperatures of 130°C, 160°C and 180°C respectively. Methods of acoustic emission (AE) were used to investigate the resulting effects associated with transformations and a large number of AE events were registered. Neural networks were applied to analyse these phenomena. In the tested signal, three groups of events were identified of: high, medium and low energy. The average spectral characteristics enabled the power of the signal spectrum to be determined. After completing the process, the results were compiled in the form of diagrams of the relationship of the AE incidence frequency as a function of time. Based on the results, it was found that in the austempering of tool steel, in the first stage of transformation midrib morphology is formed. Midrib is a twinned thin plate martensite. In the 2nd stage of transformation, the intensity of the generation of medium energy events indicates the occurrence of bainite initialised by martensite. The obtained graphic of AE characteristics of tool steel austempering allow conclusions to be drawn about the kinetics and the mechanism of this transformation.

Open access

Ewa Dryzek, Maciej Sarnek and Mirosław Wróbel

References 1. Gutierrez-Urrutia, I., & Raabe, D. (2012). Grain size effect on strain hardening in twinning-induced plasticity steels. Scripta Mater ., 66 , 992–996. DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2012.01.037. 2. Yakubtsov, I. A., Ariapour, A., & Perovic, D. D. (1999). Effect of nitrogen on stacking fault energy of f.c.c. iron-based alloys. Acta Mater ., 47 , 1271–1279. DOI: 10.1016/S1359-6454(98)00419-4. 3. Adler, P. H., Olson, G. B., & Owen, W. S. (1986). Strain hardening of hadfield manganese steel. Metall. Mater. Trans. A-Phys. Metal. Mater

Open access

L.B. Magalas

.B. Magalas, M. Majewski, Recent advances in determination of the logarithmic decrement and the resonant frequency in low-frequency mechanical spectroscopy, Sol. St. Phen. 137 , 15-20 (2008). [8] L.B. Magalas, M. Majewski, Ghost internal friction peaks, ghost asymmetrical peak broadening and narrowing. Misunderstandings, consequences and solution, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 521-522 , 384-388 (2009). [9] L.B. Magalas, M. Majewski, Hilbert-twin - A novel Hilbert transform-based method to compute envelope of free decaying oscillations embedded in noise, and the