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Othman A. Al Hanbali, Haji Muhammad Shoaib Khan, Muhammad Sarfraz, Mosab Arafat, Shakeel Ijaz and Abdul Hameed

.1517/17425247.2015.1018175 6. M. Arafat, Approaches to achieve an oral controlled release drug delivery system using polymers: a recent review, Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci . 7 (2015) 16–21. 7. R. Gannu, Y. V. Vishnu, V. Kishan and Y. M. Rao, Development of nitrendipine transdermal patches: in vitro and ex vivo characterization, Curr. Drug Deliv . 4 (2007) 69–76. 8. M. Arafat, Bilosomes as a Drug Delivery System , in Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Otago , NZ, (2012); 9. M. N. Pastore, Y. N. Kalia, M. Horstmann and M. S Roberts

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Yuveraj Tanwar, Chetan Chauhan and Anshu Sharma

and in vivo evaluation of transdermal patches containing diclofenac diethylammonium salt, J. Pharm. Sci. 91 (2002) 2076-2089. C. Amnuaikit, I. Ikeuchi, K. Ogawara, K. Higaki and T. Kimura, Skin permeation of propranolol from polymeric film containing terpene enhancers for transdermal use, Int. J. Pharm. 289 (2005) 167-178. P. R. P. Verma and S. S. Iyer, Transdermal delivery of propranolol using mixed grades of Eudragit: design and in vitro and in vivo evaluation, Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 26 (2000) 471

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Priya Prasad Verma and Ashok Chandak

Convention, Rockville 2002, pp. 2018. P. R. P. Verma and S. S. Iyer, Transdermal delivery of propranolol using mixed grades of eudragit: design and in vitro and in vivo evaluation, Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 26 (2000) 471--476; DOI: 10.1081/DDC-100101257. A. R. Chandak and P. R. P. Verma, Development and evaluation of HPMC based matrices for transdermal patches of tramadol, Clin. Res. Reg. Affairs 25 (2008) 13--30; DOI: 10.1080/1060133-0701885066. M. Man, C. Chang, P. H. Lee, C. T. Broman and

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Paula Antonoaea, Anca Gabriela Cârje, Adriana Ciurba, Nicoleta Todoran, Alexandru Robert Vlad and Daniela Lucia Muntean

References 1. Singh VK, Pokhariyal T, Tiwari AK - Transdermal drug delivery system for non-steroidial anti inflammatory drugs: a review. Indo Am J Pharm Res. 2013;3(4):3588-3604. 2. Rastogi V, Yadav P - Transdermal drug delivery system: an overview. Asian J Pharm. 2012;6(3):161-170. 3. Premjeet S, Bilandi A, Sahil K, Akanksha M - Transdermal drug delivery system (patches), applications in present scenario. IJRPC. 2011;1(4):1139-1151. 4. Cristea AN - Tratat de farmacologie, Bucureşti, Ed. Medicală, 2009, 617-633. 5. Gopal V, Rose C

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Rajan Rajabalaya, Chung Yee Mun, Jestin Chellian, Srikumar Chakravarthi and Sheba R. David

. Rasekh and Z. Ahmad, Formulation and evaluation of anti-rheumatic dexibuprofen transdermal patches: a quality-by-design approach, J. Drug Target. 24 (2016) 603–612; DOI: 10.3109/1061186X.2015.1116538. 14. L. Zhao, Y. Li, L. Fang, Z. He, X. Liu, L. Wang, Y. Xu and C. Ren, Transdermal delivery of tolterodine by O -acylmenthol: In vitro/in vivo correlation, Int. J. Pharm. 374 (2009) 73–81; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.03.005. 15. F. Sun, C. Sui, Y. Zhou, X. Liu, Y. Shi, Y. Wu and Y. Li, Preparation, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of

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Paula Antonoaea, Nicoleta Todoran, Emőke Rédai, Adriana Ciurba, Cătălina Bogdan, Mirela Moldovan and Daniela Lucia Muntean

, Manli W et al. - Optimized preparation and evaluation of indomethacin transdermal patch. Asian J Pharm Sci. 2007;2(6):249-259. 6. Jadhav JK, Sreenivas SA - Formulation and in vitro evaluation of indomethacin transdermal patches using polymers HPMC E5 and ethyl cellulose. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012;4(1):550-556. 7. Alladi S, Shastri NR - Semi solid matrix formulations of meloxicam and tenoxicam: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Arch Pharm Res. 2015;38(5):801-812. 8. Shirsand SB, Ladhane GM, Prathap S, Prakash PV

Open access

Duffee Lauren, Passino Sanna Eraldo, Scanu Antonio and Columbano Nicolò

REFERENCES 1. Ahern BJ, Soma LR, Rudy JA, Uboh CE, Schaer TP: Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl administered transdermally and intravenously in sheep. Am J Vet Res 2010, 71:1127-1132. 2. Grond S, Radbruch L, Lehmann KA: Clinical pharmacokinetics of transdermal opioids. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000, 38:59-89. 3. Wilson D, Pettifer GR, Hosgood G: Effect of transdermally administered fentanyl on minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in normothermic and hypothermic dogs. J Am Vet Med 2006, 228:1042-1046. 4. Yackey M, Ilkiw JE, Pascoe PJ, Tripp LD

Open access

Kanika Gupta Verma, Pradhuman Verma and Suman Basavaraju


Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is the use of various forms of nicotine delivery methods intended to replace the nicotine obtained from smoking or other tobacco usage. This reduces the withdrawal symptoms associated with smoking cessation and helps resist the urge to smoke cigarettes. The aim of this review is to determine the effectiveness of the different forms of NRT (chewing gum, transdermal patches, nasal spray, inhalers, and tablets) in achieving asceticism from cigarettes. As a method of delivering nicotine into the bloodstream, NRT is thought to be a comparatively less-dangerous method than tobacco smoking.

Open access

Davorka Sutlović and Marija Definis-Gojanović

References Anderson DT, Muto JJ. Duragesic transdermal patch: postmortem tissue distribution of fentanyl in 25 cases. J Anal Toxicol 2000;24:627-34. [displayed 30 May 2007]. Available at Sternbach GL, Varon J. "Designer drugs": recognizing and managing their toxic effects. Postgrad Med 1992;91:169-76. Smith FP. Handbook of Forensic Drug Analysis. Amterdam: Elseiver Academic Press; 2005

Open access

Ashu Mittal, Udai Sara and Asgar Ali

and M. Aqil, The effect of penetration enhancers on permeation kinetics of nitrendipine in two different skin models, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 31 (2008) 1766-1772; DOI: 10.1248/bpb.31.1766. M. Aqil, A. Ali, Y. Sultana and P. Nayyar, Matrix type transdermal drug delivery systems of metoprolol tartrate: skin toxicity and in vivo characterization, Ethiop. Pharm. J. 22 (2004) 53-60. P. Arora and M. Biswajit, Design, development, physicochemical, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of transdermal patches containg