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M. Giorgi, S. Del Carlo, B. Łebkowska-Wieruszewska, C. Kowalski and G. Saccomanni

References de Sousa AB, Santos AC, Schramm SG, Porta V, Górniak SL, Florio JC, de Souza Spinosa H ( 2008 ) Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and o-desmethyltramadol in goats after intravenous and oral administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 31: 45-51. Elghazali M, Barezaik IM, Abdel Hadi AA, Eltayeb FM, Al Masri J, Wasfi IA ( 2008 ) The pharmacokinetics, metabolism and urinary detection time of tramadol in camels. Vet J 178: 272-277. Garrido MJ, Sayar O, Segura C, Rapado J, Dios-Vieitez MC

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I. Capík and O. Nagy

References 1. Bono, A. V., Cuffari, S., 1997: Effectiveness and tolerance of tramadol in cancer pain. A comparative study with respect to buprenorphine. Drugs, 53 Suppl. 2, 40-49. 2. Budd, K., Raffa, R. B., 2005: Buprenorphine - The unique opioid analgesic. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 3-21. 3. Brayfield, A., 2013: “Tramadol Hydrochloride”. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved April 5th, 2014, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tramadol. 4. Brema, F., Pastorino

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Wantana Reanmongkol, Nattha Kaewnopparat and Chaveewan Ratanajamit

References 1. Dayer P, Collart L, Desmeules J. The pharmacology of tramadol. Drugs. 1994; 47(Suppl):3-7. 2. Grond S, Sablotzki A. Clinical pharmacology of tramadol. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004; 43:879-923. 3. Micromedex Healthcare Series: Document 2007. Tramadol. Available from: http://www.thomsonhc.com/hcs/librarian/ND_PR/Main/SBK/3/PFPUI/7z16hW4. 4. Petrone D, Kamin M, Olson W. Slowing the titration rate of tramadol HCl reduces the incidence of discontinuation due to nausea and/ or vomiting: a

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P. Bodera, W. Stankiewicz, B. Antkowiak, M. Paluch, J. Kieliszek, J. Sobiech, R. Zdanowski, A. Wojdas, A. Siwicki and E. Skopińska-Różewska

References Berkels R, Taubert D, Rosenkranz A, Rosen R ( 2003 ) Vascular protective effects of dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. Involvement of endothelial nitric oxide. Pharmacology 69: 171-176. Dixon SJ, Persinger MA ( 2001 ) Suppression of analgesia in rats induced by morphine or L-NAME but not both drugs by microTesla, frequency-modulated magnetic fields. Int J Neurosci 108: 87-97. Driessen B, Reimann W, Giertz H ( 1993 ) Effects of the central analgesic tramadol on the

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Lin Li, Jing Dong, Dezhang Lu, Sheng Jiang, Dongqi Lin and Honggang Fan

References 1. Bednarski R.M., Muir W.W., Tracy C.H.: Effects of tolazoline, doxapram, and RO15-1788 on the depressant action of tiletamine/zolazepam. Vet Med 1989, 84 , 1016-1022. 2. Degerfeld M.M.: Personal experiences in the use of Zoletil® for anaesthesia of the red-necked wallaby ( Macropus rufogriseus ). Vet Res Commun 2005, 29 , 297-300. 3. Engelhardt T., Steel E., Johnston G.: Tramadol for pain relief in children undergoing tonsillectomy: a comparison with morphine. Paediat Anaesth 2003, 13

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Lidia Cristina Chiţac, S. Beşchea Chiriac, Monica Neamţu, Delia Bulea and Veronica Bild

., Lunsford L.D., Kondziolka D., Flickinger J.C. Sr., 2012 - Do carbamazepine, gabapentin, or other anticonvulsants exert sufficient radioprotective effects to alter responses from trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 83(4), e501-5066. Hara K., Minami K., Sata T., 2005 - The effects of tramadol and its metabolite on glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acidA, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes . Anesth Analg, 100(5), 1400-5, table of contents. Hsu S.K., Yeh C.C., Lin C.J., Hsieh Y.J., 2012 - An open label trial of the

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Ahmed Jalil Al-Safi and Yehya Kamal Al-Bayati

References 1. Doris W, MLS M, Sweetman SC. Martindale,the Complete Drug Reference, 33rd ed., Pharmaceutical Press. J Med Libra Assoc. 2012;100:2. 2. Saman A, Majid A, S. Rezvaneh S, Synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer for controlled release of tramadol. Central Eur J Chem. 2010;8:3. 3. Saman D, Majid A, Seyed A. Preparation and utilization of a molecularly imprinted polymer for solid phase extraction of tramadol. Cent Eur J of Chem. 2010;8:4. 4. Abdellatef H. Kinetic

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Pramod Kumar, Sanjay Singh and Brahmeshwar Mishra

overview of osmotic pressure controlled release formulation, J. Pharm. Res.   5 (2006) 34-45. P. Kumar and B. Mishra, An overview of recent patents on oral osmotic drug delivery systems, Recent Patents on Drug. Del. Form.   1 (2007) 236-255; DOI: 10.2174/187221107782331638. S. A. Schug, Tramadol in acute pain, Acute Pain   5 (2003) 1-3; DOI: 10.1016/S1366-0071(03) 00028-7. C. Mattia and F. Coluzzi, Once-daily tramadol in rheumatological pain, Expert. Opin. Pharmacother.   7 (2006) 1811

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Rattanaporn Burimsittichai, Phoonsak Limraksasin, Cameron Paul Hurst and Somrat Charuluxananan

than the surgical pain. Strategies that treat CRBD effectively would improve the quality of recovery for these patients. Tramadol and ketamine are often used intravenously during anesthesia. Both have been reported to reduce the proportion of patients complaining of postoperative CRBD [ 10 , 12 ]. In previous studies, tramadol was administered at the end of the surgery (percutaneous nephrolithotomy), while ketamine was given after the induction of anesthesia during open nephrectomy. Although both drugs reduced postoperative CRBD, the results might not be

Open access

U. Kaka, Y.M. Goh, L.W. Chean and H.C. Chen

, Łebkowska-Wieruszewska B, Kowalski CJ, Saccomanni G ( 2010 ) Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and metabolites after injective administrations in dogs. Pol J Vet Sci 13: 639-644. Haga HA, Dolvik NI ( 2005 ) Electroencephalographic and cardiovascular variables as nociceptive indicators in isoflurane-anaesthetized horses. Vet Anaesth Analg 32: 128-135. Haga HA, Ranheim B ( 2005 ) Castration of piglets: the analgesic effects of intratesticular and intrafunicular lidocaine injection. Vet Anaesth Analg 32: 1-9. Harper NJ, Greer R, Conway D ( 2001 ) Neuromuscular