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Jarosław Majka, Mateusz P. Sęk, Stanisław Mazur, Bożena Gołębiowska and Adam Pieczka
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Aubrecht R., Méres Š., Sýkora M. & Mikuš T. 2009: Provenance of the detrital
A unique case of low-temperature metamorphic (hydrothermal) overprint of peraluminous, highly evolved rare-metal S-type granite is described. The hidden Dlhá dolina granite pluton of Permian age (Western Carpathians, eastern Slovakia) is composed of barren biotite granite, mineralized Li-mica granite and albitite. Based on whole-rock chemical data and evaluation of compositional variations of rock-forming and accessory minerals (Rb-P-enriched K-feldspar and albite; biotite, zinnwaldite and di-octahedral micas; Hf-(Sc)-rich zircon, fluorapatite, topaz, schorlitic tourmaline), the following evolutionary scenario is proposed: (1) Intrusion of evolved peraluminous melt enriched in Li, B, P, F, Sn, Nb, Ta, and W took place followed by intrusion of a large body of biotite granites into Paleozoic metapelites and metarhyolite tuffs; (2) The highly evolved melt differentiated in situ forming tourmaline-bearing Li-biotite granite at the bottom, topaz-zinnwaldite granite in the middle, and quartz albitite to albitite at the top of the cupola. The main part of the Sn, Nb, and Ta crystallized from the melt as disseminated cassiterite and Nb-Ta oxide minerals within the albitite, while disseminated wolframite appears mainly within the topaz-zinnwaldite granite. The fluid separated from the last portion of crystallized magma caused small scale greisenization of the albitite; (3) Alpine (Cretaceous) thrusting strongly tectonized and mylonitized the upper part of the pluton. Hydrothermal low-temperature fluids enriched in Ca, Mg, and CO2 unfiltered mechanically damaged granite. This fluid-driven overprint caused formation of carbonate veinlets, alteration and release of phosphorus from crystal lattice of feldspars and Li from micas, precipitating secondary Sr-enriched apatite and Mg-rich micas. Consequently, all bulk-rock and mineral markers were reset and now represent the P-T conditions of the Alpine overprint.
Vanja Biševac, Erwin Krenn, Fritz Finger, Borna Lužar-Oberiter and Dražen Balen
Monazite age dating, detrital heavy mineral content and whole-rock geochemistry provided insight into the provenance, depositional history and paleogeological setting of the Radlovac Complex very low- to low-grade metasedimentary rocks (South Tisia, Slavonian Mountains, Croatia). Electron microprobe based Th-U-Pb dating of detrital monazite indicates a Variscan age of the protolith (330 ± 10 Ma). The detrital heavy mineral assemblages of representative metasedimentary rocks are dominated by apatite, zircon, tourmaline and rutile accompanied by minor quantity of epidote/zoisite, monazite and titanite. Judging from the heavy mineral assemblage, felsic igneous rocks served as the source material. This is consistent with the major and trace element spectrum of studied metasedimentary rocks characterized by high concentration of Th, high L + MREEs and high ratios of La/Sc, Th/Sc, La/Co, Th/Co and Th/Cr. The occurrence of magmatic monazite, zircon and xenotime and the absence of metamorphic heavy minerals suggest that granitoids, migmatites and migmatitic gneisses served as one major source for the metapsammites. Such rock types are commonly exposed in the Papuk Complex of the older surrounding complexes, while the Psunj Complex also contains metamorphic rocks. This is in good correlation with the monazite ages presented here which fits better with ages of Papuk Complex representative rocks than with those of the Psunj Complex known from the literature. Overall, data show that the Radlovac Complex represents the detritus of the local Variscan crust characterized by granitoid bodies, migmatites and migmatitic gneisses typical for the Papuk Complex.
Marta Oszczypko-Clowes, Patrycja Wójcik-Tabol and Mateusz Płoszaj
The Grybów Unit occurring in the Ropa tectonic window was the subject of micropaleontological and geochemical investigation. Studies, based on calcareous nannofossils, proved that the level of reworked microfossil is not higher than 22 % and it varies between two sections. Quantitative analyses of the reworked assemblages confirmed the domination of Cretaceous and Middle Eocene species. The Sub-Grybów Beds, Grybów Marl Formation and Krosno Beds were assigned to the Late Oligocene and represent the terminal flysch facies. Detrital material accumulated in the Oligocene sediments originated from the Marmarosh Massif, which is the eastern prolongation of the Fore-Magura Ridge. The microscopically obtained petrological features agree with the chemical composition of the samples. Mica flakes, rounded grains of glauconite, heavy mineral assemblage, including abraded grains of zircon, rutile and tourmaline as well as charred pieces of plant tissues are reworked components. Enrichment in zircon and rutile is confirmed geochemically by positive correlation between Zr and SiO2. Zr addition is illustrated on 10×Al2O3–Zr–200×TiO2 and Zr/Sc vs. Th/Sc diagrams. Interpretation of the A–CN–K diagram and variety of CIA and CPA values indicate that the source rocks were intensely weathered granite-type rocks.
The composition of the transparent heavy-mineral assemblages (0.25-0.1 mm) in Quaternary slope, karst, glacial, fluvioglacial and fluvial deposits with different parent material was investigated in the Kielce-Łagów Valley (the central part of the Palaeozoic core of the Holy Cross Mountains). For the purpose, 93 samples of mostly sandy sediments were examined. Some marker and some supporting minerals can be distinguished. Slope and karst deposits are dominated by the abrasion-resistant minerals zircon, tourmaline, staurolite and rutile. This assemblage points at a source consisting of strongly weathered pre-Quaternary bedrock. Glacial and fluvioglacial deposits are dominated by medium-resistant and non-resistant minerals (garnet, amphibole, pyroxene and biotite). The two types of parent material of the heavy minerals are typical of the Quaternary deposits in the Polish uplands. The two sources are most clear in the younger (Vistulian and Holocene), mostly fluvial sediments. The results of the analysis imply that the impact of Pleistocene glaciers on the central part of the Holy Cross Mountains was neither large enough to hide the local mineralogical background, nor sufficient to dominate over the main processes transforming the mineral composition under the variable climatic conditions of the Quaternary, including aeolian processes and chemical weathering.
Detrital garnets and rutiles have been recovered from basaltic pyroclastic rocks in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin and characterized using electron probe microanalysis and imaging. All garnets are dominated by the almandine component, except for one sample dominated by spessartine. A total of three garnet groups have been distinguished according to the increased contents of grossular (Group I), pyrope (Group II) and spessartine components (Group III). Compositions of the group I and II garnets with fluctuating Ca- and relatively low Mg contents are consistent with low- to medium-grade metasediments and/or metabasites. Locally increased Mg contents could indicate higher P–T metamorphic overprint. The dominantly metamorphic origin of the Group I and II garnets (composed of >99 % of samples) is also corroborated by chlorite, tourmaline, staurolite, ilmenite and andalusite inclusions. Spessartine-rich garnets (Group III composed of <1 % of samples) could be genetically linked with granitoids. Detrital rutiles invariably plot within the field of metasediments metamorphosed under amphibolite-facies conditions. Possible proximal (subjacent basement sampled by ascending lava) or distal sources (catchment sediments from uplifted Central Carpathian basement) of heavy mineral assemblages are discussed.