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This paper presents the results of a review on variability of key pavement design input variables (asphalt modulus and thickness, subgrade modulus) and assesses effects on pavement performance (fatigue and deformation life). Variability is described by statistical terms such as mean and standard deviation and by its probability density distribution.
The subject of reliability in pavement design has pushed many highway organisations around the world to review their design methodologies, mainly empirical, to move towards mechanistic-empirical analysis and design which provide the tools for the designer to evaluate the effect of variations in materials on pavement performance. This research has reinforced this need for understanding how the variability of design parameters affects the pavement performance.
This study has only considered flexible pavements. The sites considered for the analysis, all in the UK (including Northern Ireland), were mainly motorways or major trunk roads. Pavement survey data analysed were for Lane 1, the most heavily trafficked lane. Sections 1km long were considered wherever possible.
Statistical characterisation of the variation of layer thickness, asphalt stiffness and subgrade stiffness is addressed. A sensitivity analysis is then carried out to assess which parameter(s) have the greater influence on the pavement life.
The research shows that, combining the effect of all the parameters considered, the maximum range of 15th and 85th percentiles (as percentages of the mean) was found to be 64% to 558% for the fatigue life and 94% to 808% for the deformation life.
The Vialit Cohesion Pendulum has been used for many years in Europe as a tool for assessing modified asphalt binders with a particular emphasis on chip seal/surfacing dressing applications. The cohesion measured in this device has been considered as an indicator of quality of the base asphalt binder and subsequent polymer formulation. This test demonstrates a transition between brittle and ductile failure of binder systems. When a test of this kind is compared to other binder tests, it is possible to deduce the impact that the high rate of loading in the Vialit Cohesion Pendulum test has on the test results. Data have been developed on a series of SHRP core asphalt binders and these are compared to master curves developed with the same binders. A discussion will follow on how the fracture of asphalt binder and mixture is both rate and temperature dependent and that this parameter always needs that consideration to truly evaluate the meaning of test data. A test of this nature, while founded partly on an empirical data base of use, can be better explained and understood with consideration of the speed of loading and temperature effects that allows the translation of fracture temperatures at one condition to those at another. The results from this type of evaluation offer better understanding of criteria such as fatigue, fracture and bond of asphalt binders and mixtures.
 Emily M. Ryan, Thomas F. Sanquist, (2012), Validation of building energy modeling tools under idealized and realistic conditions. Energy and Buildings 47 , pp 375–382
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independent data. The same limitations hold for most spatial decision-support tools used for the spatially explicit assessment of ecosystem services. Despite all the achievements attained in quantitative ecosystem services assessment (e.g. Bagstad/Semmens/Waage et al. 2013 ), Rieb, Chaplin-Kramer, Daily et al. (2017 : 820) emphasise that most of these tools “are missing crucial components of the complexity needed to fully answer the question of when, where and how much nature matters to the resilient provision of ES [ecosystem services] and to human well
Andrea Berndgen-Kaiser, Tine Köhler, Maja Lorbek and Markus Wiechert
Municipalities suggested protecting smaller municipalities from the survey workload. Therefore, the survey was limited to municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants. The quantitative partial survey was sent to 1,549 municipalities (all municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants; approximately 13% of all German municipalities) via e-mail with a link to an online survey tool providing standardised anonymous questionnaires. 832 municipalities took part in the survey (54% of all municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants).
This limitation has a significant
sozialtheoretischen und epistemologischen Fundierung eines pragmatischen Forschungsstils. Wiesbaden. doi: 10.1007/978-3-531-19897-2
Strübing J. 2014 Grounded Theory. Zur sozialtheoretischen und epistemologischen Fundierung eines pragmatischen Forschungsstils Wiesbaden 10.1007/978-3-531-19897-2
Surchi, M. (2011): The temporary store: a new marketing tool for fashion brands. In: Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 15, 2, 257-270. doi: 10.1108/13612021111132672
Surchi M. 2011 The temporary store: a new marketing tool for fashion brands In: Journal of
( Goffman 1963 ). Simmel (1903) concludes that physical co-presence is seldom a neutral experience. Rather, these situations are typically unequivocally experienced either as comfortable and rewarding or as unpleasant and threatening.
2.2 Bridging relational distance: productive differences
In this paper, we use the notion “relational distance” ( Ibert 2010 ; Ibert/Müller 2015) as a heuristic tool to assess the cultural differences that play out in social situations. Relational distance is a notion that allows an analysis of the intensity and quality of cultural