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Maciej Szuchta and Jakub Ośko

References 1. Koleska, M., Viererbl, L., & Marek, M. (2014). Development of the MCNPX model for the portable HPGe detector. Radiat. Phys. Chem ., 104 , 351–354. 2. Vrba, T., Nogueira, P., Broggio, D., Caldeira, M., Capello, K., Fantínová, K., Figueira, C., Hunt, J., Leone, D., Murugan, M., Marzocchi, O., Moraleda, M., Shutt, A., Suh, S., Takahashi, M., Tymińska, K., Lopez, M. A., & Tanner, R. (2014). EURADOS intercomparison exercise on MC modeling for the in-vivo monitoring of Am-241 in skull phantoms (Part I). Radiat. Phys. Chem ., 104 , 332

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Ali Mowlavi, Maria Fornasier and Mario de Denaro

tumours to the thyroid gland: report of 3 cases and brief review of the literature. Radiol Oncol 2011; 45 : 53-8. Van Isselt JW, de Klerk JMH, Van Rijk PP, Van Gils APG, Polman LJ, Kamphuis C, Meijer R, Beekman FJ. Comparison of methods for thyroid volume estimation in patients with Graves' disease. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2003; 30 : 525-31. Snyder W, Ford M, Warner G. Estimates of absorbed fractions for monoenergetic photon sources uniformly distributed in various organs of a heterogeneous phantom: MIRD

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Svetlana Savin, Dubravka Cvejić, Ljiljana Mijatović and Snežana Simonović

endocrinol (Copenh) 1980; 95: 328-34. Preissner CM, O'Kane DJ, Singh RJ, Morris JC, Grebe SKG. Phantoms in the assay tube: heterophile antibody interferences in serum thyroglobulin assays. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 3069-74. Giovanella L, Ghelfo A. Undetectable serum thyroglobulin due to negative interference of heterophile antibodies in relapsing thyroid carcinoma. Clin Chem 2007; 53: 1871-2. Pacini F, Mariotti S, Formica N, Elisei R. Thyroid auto-antibodies in thyroid cancer: incidence

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Anna Kowalik, Weronika Jackowiak, Julian Malicki, Małgorzata Skórska, Marta Adamczyk, Ewelina Konstanty, Tomasz Piotrowski and Kinga Polaczek-Grelik

. W., Rittmann, K. L., Meinass, H. J., & Rennicke, P. (1996). Radiation dose in critical organs due to non-coplanar irradiation of the hypophysis. Strahlenther. Onkol ., 172 (9), 501–506. 5. ICRP. (1991). 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Ann. ICRP , 21 (1/3). 6. Kaderka, R., Schardt, D., Durante, M., Berger, T., Ramm, U., Licher, J., & La Tessa, C. (2012). Out-of-field dose measurements in a water phantom using different radiotherapy modalities. Phys. Med. Biol ., 57 , 5059–5074. 7. Kase, K. R

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Jan Jamsek, Ivana Zagar, Simona Gaberscek and Marko Grmek

tumors: a metaanalysis. J Nucl Med 2012; 53: 701-8. 31. Makris NE, Huisman MC, Kinahan PE, Lammertsma AA, Boellaard R. Evaluation of strategies towards harmonization of FDG PET/CT studies in multicentre trials: comparison of scanner validation phantoms and data analysis procedures. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2013; 40: 1507-15. 32. King D, Stack B, Spring P, Walker R, Bodenner D. Incidence of thyroid carcinoma in fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-positive thyroid incidentalomas. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 137: 400

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Aysan Mohammad Namdar, Mohammad Mohammadzadeh, Murat Okutan and Asghar Mesbahi

inflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteinase enzymes in rectal cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Integr Cancer Ther. 2013;12(6):496-502. [4] Mesbahi A, Dadgar H, Ghareh-Aghaji N, Mohammadzadeh M. A Monte Carlo approach to lung dose calculation in small fields used in intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy. J Cancer Res Ther. 2014;10(4):896-902. [5] Mesbahi A, Dadgar H. Dose calculations accuracy of TiGRT treatment planning system for small IMRT beamlets in heterogeneous lung phantom. Int J Radiat Res. 2015

Open access

Daryoush Khoramian and Bijan Hashemi

Organ in Rando Phantom under Head, Abdomen and Pelvis Spiral CT Scan by Thermo Luminescent Dosimetery - TLD. J Fasa Univ Med Sci. 2011;1(3):131-135. [5] Zarb F, McEntee M, Rainford L. Maltese CT doses for commonly performed examinations demonstrate alignment with published DRLs across Europe. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;150(2):198-206. [6] Shrimpton P, Hillier M, Lewis M, Dunn M. Doses from computed tomography (CT) examinations in the UK-2003 review: National Radiological Protection Board. Chilton, UK; 2005. [7] Hart D, Wall B, Hillier M, Shrimpton P

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Erna Alukic, Damijan Skrk and Nejc Mekis

articles for a number of procedures, such as imaging of the clavicle 4 , sacroiliac joint 5 , abdomen 6 , knee joint 15 and lumbar spine. 7 , 8 , 16 Mc Entee and Kinsella (2010) noted that the use of PA projection of the clavicle can result in dose decrease of 28% to the eyes, 56% to the breast and 78% to the thyroid. Although the image quality was better in the AP projection by 6.3%, the images performed in the PA projection were diagnostically acceptable. Mekis et al . 5 investigated how dose reduction to the patient can be achieved with the use of PA projection

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Habib Ahmad, Misbah Ahmad, Shahid Ali, M. Rauf Khattak, Wajeeha Shaheen, Jawad A. Gilani and Khalil Ahmad

. Radiother Oncol. 2004;73(1):79-88. [8] Davidson SE, Ibbott GS, Prado KL, et al . Accuracy of two heterogeneity dose calculation algorithms for IMRT in treatment plans designed using an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Med Phys. 2007;34(5):1850-1857. [9] Cheng CW, Das IJ, Tang W, et al . Dosimetric comparison of treatment planning systems in irradiation of breast with tangential fields. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1997;38(4):835-842. [10] Van Dyk J. Quality assurance of radiation therapy planning systems: current status and remaining challenges. Int J

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Damir Franic and Ivan Verdenik

, and/or glucocorticoid therapy, disorders affecting bone metabolism and an increased risk of falls due to cardiovascular, kidney and thyroid gland problems, diabetes, blood pressure, alcohol abuse, smoking habits, problems with milk digestion, antiosteoporotic drugs use and family history of osteoporotic fracture ( Figure 1 ). Figure 1 The questionnaire to obtain demographic, anthropometric, and fracture data, and the risk factors for OP. 2.2 Methods of Measurement All the women enrolled in the study underwent a DXA measurement using the HOLOGIC