polymerization [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ] or systemic fibrinolysis [ 18 ]. Abnormal screening coagulation test results, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT), are commonly encountered in patients with plasma cell neoplasms and are not typically associated with clinically significant bleeding [ 4 , 5 ]. We describe a patient who was accidentally diagnosed with multiple myeloma during diagnostic work-up of screening coagulation tests prolongation. A 71-year-old patient diagnosed with renal tumor was referred to the
Teresa Iwaniec, Joanna Zdziarska and Artur Jurczyszyn
Gian Luca Salvagno, Davide Demonte, Matteo Gelati, Giovanni Poli, Emmanuel J. Favaloro and Giuseppe Lippi
evaluated with the standardized CAT assay include the lag time (LT; reflecting the time necessary for initial thrombin generation after adding the trigger), the time to reach the thrombin peak (TP; mirroring the speed of thrombin generation), the thrombin peak height (PH; reflecting the highest value of thrombin generated) and the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; underscoring the total amount of thrombin generated). The combination of these different parameters contributes to accurately define the hemostatic potential in the test plasma, as reflected by the speed and
Roland Kaufmann, Franziska Mußbach, Annett Urbanek, Utz Settmacher and Ferdinand von Eggeling
References 1. Glenn K, Carney D, Fenton J, Cunningham D. Thrombin active-site regions required for fibroblast receptor binding and initiation of cell division. J Biol Chem 2004; 255: 6609-16. 2. Bar-Shavit R, Mudd M, Wilner G, Mann K, Fenton JWII. Monocyte chemotaxis: stimulation by specific exosite region in thrombin. Science 1893; 220: 728-31. 3. Berndt M, Philipps D. Platelet membrane proteins: composition and receptor function. In: Gordon J, editor. Platelets in biology and pathology. Amsterdam/North Holland, 1981: 43-7. 4. Duplantier JG
Jan Kochan, Ľudmila Schmidtová, Irina Sadloňová and Andrej Murányi
References Buehler PW. (2007). BLA 125248 Thrombin (Recombinant), ZymoGenetics, Pharmacology/Toxicology Review Memorandum, FDA, 9-18-2007; Available from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ ApprovedProducts/UCM209597.pdf Croxtall JD, Scott LJ. (2009). Recombinant human thrombin : in surgical hemostasis. BioDrugs 23(5): 333-338. Chapman WC, Singla N, Genyk Y, McNeil JW, Renkens KL Jr, Reynolds TC, Murphy A, Weaver FA. (2007). A phase 3, randomized, double-blind comparative study of the
P. Sobiech, R. Targoński, A. Stopyra and K. Żarczyńska
Changes in the blood coagulation profile after ovariohysterectomy in female dogs
This study investigated changes in the coagulation profile of 10 healthy female dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Blood samples were collected three times - before, directly after and 24 h after surgery. Plasma samples were analyzed to determine thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen content, D-dimer content and antithrombin (AT) III activity. The results revealed post-operative haemostatic system disorders related to prolonged APTT, higher fibrinogen and D-dimer concentrations and lower levels of AT III activity.
A. Snarska and P. Sobiech
References Ammann VJ, Fecteau G, Helie P, Desnoyer M, Hebert P, Babkine M ( 1996 ) Pancytopenia associated with bone marrow aplasia in a Holstein heifer. Can Vet J 37: 493-495. Badylak SF, Van Vleet JF ( 1981) Alterations of prothrombin time and activated thromboplastic time in dogs with hepatic disease. Am J Vet Res 43: 2053-2056. Balikci E, Yildiz A, Gurdogan F ( 2007 ) Blood metabolite concentrations during pregnancy and postpartum in Akkaraman ewes. Small Rumin Res 67: 247-251. Barić Rafaj R, Tonćić J, Vicković I, Sostarić B ( 2011
Justyna Radwińska, Anna Domosławska, Andrzej Pomianowski, Katarzyna Żarczyńska and Andrzej Jurczak
Twenty bitches with acute endometritis-pyometra complex (EPC) and 20 clinically healthy bitches were examined. The following coagulation parameters were determined in haemostatic evaluations: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen concentrations (FBG), D-dimer concentrations (D-D), antithrombin activity (AT), and blood platelet counts (PLT). Morphological and biochemical blood parameters were also analysed. Examinations of animals affected by EPC revealed blood coagulation and fibrinolytic disorders, and the noted results (PT 13.7 ±1.06 s, aPTT 23.4 ±1.04 s, TT 15.6 ±0.68 s, FBG 2.2 g/L, D-D 785.4 ±103.05 μg/L, AT 111.1 ±13.51%, PLT 169.30 ±126.31 103/μL) point to a high risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation. The findings indicate that the coagulation parameters of bitches affected by EPC should be analysed before treatment as the noted disorder can significantly complicate therapy and ovariohysterectomy, and endanger the patients' life.
Emma Fosbury, Raoul Blumber, Ri Liesner and Keith Sibson
Healthy, term neonates rarely encounter problems with bleeding, despite physiological differences in their levels of clotting factors, reflected in prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT). Their risk of bleeding, however, is significantly increased by the presence of a severe congenital bleeding disorder. Establishing such a diagnosis can present a particular challenge, given the rarity of these conditions and the difficulty in performing and interpreting laboratory assays in this age group. However, a delay in diagnosis and implementation of appropriate treatment can result in catastrophic sequelae. Therefore, the presentation of a healthy child at birth, whose condition rapidly deteriorates as a result of bleeding, should prompt the urgent investigation of a congenital haemostatic defect and involvement of expert haematological advice. We describe a very unusual presentation of a severe bleeding disorder in the first few days of life to highlight these issues.
Large amounts of valuable waste are produced during sea food processing. This has a great potential for conversion to biologically active proteins and polysaccharides. Among these compounds, sulfated polysaccharides have been considered due to their many biological properties.
The present work was conducted to study anticoagulant activities and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) extracted from the cartilage of sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). The enzymatic extraction of sturgeon cartilage was performed in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride salt. The structure was characterized via electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Herein, ACE inhibitory and anticoagulant properties of extracted GAGs were determined.
The amount of GAGs was 6.8±1.3% of cartilage dry weight. GAGs showed good activity in ACE inhibitory – with a highest level of 85.7%. The derived anticoagulant activity indexes, APPT (activated partial thromboplastin time) and TT (Thrombin time) of the extracted polysaccharide showed a prolonging of clotting time, compare to control.
The results of this study revealed that the cartilage extracted GAGs possess promising ACE inhibitory properties and anticoagulant effects. Thus, the product can be substituted for blood reducing drugs and antithrombotic agents at least in laboratory conditions.
P. Sobiech, W. Rękawek, M. Ali, R. Targoński, K. Żarczyńska, A. Snarska and A. Stopyra
The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations in acid-base balance parameters and the coagulation profile in neonatal diarrheic calves. Twenty neonatal diarrheic and 20 clinically healthy neonatal calves aged between 1 week to 10 days were used. All blood samples were taken on the third day from the onset of diarrhea symptom. Venous blood samples were collected from each animal to determine platelet numbers, pH, pCO2, pO2, HCO3-, BE, O2SAT, ctCO2 and electrolytes (K+, Na+ and Cl-). Plasma samples were collected from each animal for the measurement of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), the concentrations of fibrinogen, D-dimer and the activity of antithrombin III (AT III). Blood pH (7.19), BE (-10.6 mmol/l), HCO3 - (25.15 mmol/l), pO2 (3.33 kPa), O2SAT (24.12 %) were significantly lower and serum concentration of K+ (6.55 mmol/l) was significantly higher in diarrheic calves. These changes indicate the state of uncompensated metabolic acidosis with accompanying hyperkalemia. TT (32.05s) and APTT (39.9s) values were more prolonged in calves with diarrhea than in the control group. D-dimer (587.25 μg/l) concentrations were significantly increased while a visible drop in AT III (103.75%) activity and platelets counts (598 x109/l) were observed in diarrheic group of calves. The results suggest that a consumptive type of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) developed in diarrheic calves.