References Staniszewski B.: Heat Exchange. Theoretical bases. PWN, Warsaw 1980 (in Polish). Kostowski E.: Heat Flow. Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej, Gliwice 2000 (in Polish). ThermaCAM P65. User Guide. FLIR SYSTEMS, 2004. Minkina W.: Thermovision measurements — equipment and methods. Wydawnictwo Politechniki Częstochowskiej, Częstochowa 2004. Kruczek T.: Analysis of the possibilities of thermovisual temperature
Rafał Wyczółkowski and Dorota Musiał
Alicja Katarzyna Dziuba, Krzysztof Dudek, Krystyna Kobel-Buys, Grzegorz Żurek and Ewa Smajda
Introduction: of the study. The elevated muscle tension in lower limbs (LL) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) results in the abnormal pressure on major blood vessels. Consequently, this leads to the disturbances in the circulatory system and a reduction in the temperature in lower limbs. This study assesses thermal effects of a single-session hippotherapy in LL in CP children by means of a non-invasive thermovision technique. Materials and methods: The study included 9 children with CP aged 11,8 ± 4,5 who were treated with hippotherapy. A thermovision camera was used for measurements of the temperature on the surface of lower limbs in anterior, posterior, lateral and medial parts before and after the hippotherapy. Results: The increase in the temperature was observed in the areas of lower limbs which remain directly in contact with the horse’s body. The Wilcoxon test (p<0,01) revealed statistically significant changes in the temperature of the posterior regions in lower limbs. Conclusions: Hippotherapy causes an increase in the temperature of lower limbs in the areas directly involved in contact with the horse’s body. When continuing the study, the factors required for positive effects of the hippotherapy, such as the quality of the therapy and patient’s activation should also be taken into consideration.
Karol Grochalski and Katarzyna Peta
Article presents the methods of detecting defects within material with the use of active infrared thermovision. During the study ABS and PVC samples were used inside which internal structure defects and defects of glue conjunction between components were modeled. During combining composite materials with the use of glue joints, there is a problem with homogenous distribution of the glue layer on the surface of an element, which results in the creation of defects in joint structure and the decline of active surface of adhesion forces on the combined materials. It is then necessary to control the quality of the conjunction between the glued surfaces. The use of non-contact diagnostic methods allows to analyze a larger surface which conditions in more efficient quality control process. In the study, external heat excitation was used - optical excitation with periodic variable signal (LockIn method) and unit step excitation (Pulse method). The methods of analysis of the obtained thermograms are presented.
Pawel Baranowski, Krzysztof Damaziak, Jerzy Malachowski, Lukasz Mazurkiewicz, Henryk Polakowski, Tadeusz Piatkowski and Mariusz Kastek
This article presents the validation process of a brake FE model by means of temperature measured on a special stand using infrared technology. Unlike many other publications, the authors try to show the interaction between measurement technology and numerical modeling rather than only nice, perfectly correlated graphs. Some difficulties in choosing and using validation parameters are also pointed out and discussed. Finally, results of FE analyses are compared with measured data, followed by explanation of applied numerical technology and estimation of validation process effectiveness.
Andrzej Wróbel, Marek Płaczek and Andrzej Buchacz
In this paper research methods for detection of laminate panels damage were presented. The most common damage is: matrix cracking laminate interlayer damage to joints, connecting cracks, delamination and fiber breakage. The tested laminates will be used as assemblies and sub-assemblies of freight wagon. Other methods of modeling of machines by means of transducers are shown in Płaczek (2012, 2015) and Białas (2010). As part of the project authors were collaborated with specialists from other research centers and scientific research (Bocian and Kulisiewicz, 2013). As a part of future work the places where we will be able to replace the standard materials by parts made of laminate will be shown. Layered composites despite many advantages have also disadvantages. From last mentioned it is a relatively low resistance to transverse impact. When the laminate is used as a decorative element, its small damage is not a problem. The problems start when the composite satisfies more responsible tasks such as: is a part of the technical means for example of a railway wagon. Aspect of continuous monitoring of the technical state of the laminate is very important. Current technology provides numerous opportunities for non-destructive methods of technical inspections. In this paper method for testing of large areas, completely non-contact, based on the methods of thermography, was presented. It consists heating by using the composite tubes and examining it through a thermal imaging camera. Length of heating, and consequently the temperature to which the laminate is heated mostly were chosen experimentally. During the measurements, the camera measures the intensity of radiation, not temperature. Received thermogram is not always a precise representation of the actual temperature, because the camera does not reach only the radiation from tested object, but also reaches the radiation coming from the environment and reflected objects etc. As part of the research authors also we undertook other work related to Mechanical Engineering (Wróbel et al., 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015; Płaczek et al., 2014). Cooperation with other national and European centers has contributed to many publications of authors for example Tuma et al. (2013, 2014) and Jamroziak and Kosobudzki (2014).
–86.  PN-EN ISO 12241 Thermal insulation for building equipment and industrial installations – Calculation rules, 2001.  K ruczek T.: Analysis of the influence of external conditions on thermovision measurement results. In: Proc. 5th Conf. Thermography and Thermometry in Infrared TTP 2002 , Ustroń, 2002, 327–332 (in Polish).  K limpel A., K ruczek T., L isiecki A., J anicki D.: Experimental analysis of heat conditions of the laser braze welding process of copper foil absorber tube for solar collector elements. Weld. Int. 27 (2013), 6
Patrik Nemec, Alexander Čaja and Richard Lenhard
Visualization of heat transport in heat pipes using thermocamera
Heat pipes, as passive elements show a high level of reliability when taking heat away and they can take away heat flows having a significantly higher density than systems with forced convection. A heat pipe is a hermetically closed duct, filled with working fluid. Transport of heat in heat pipes is procured by the change of state of the working fluid from liquid state to steam and vice versa and depends on the hydrodynamic and heat processes in the pipe. This study have been focused on observing the impact these processes have on the heat process, the transport of heat within the heat pipe with the help of thermovision. The experiment is oriented at scanning the changes in the surface temperatures of the basic structural types of capillary heat pipes in vertical position.
Grzegorz Bieszczad and Mariusz Kastek
References Tissot, J. L., Trouilleau, C., Fieque, B., Crastes, A., Legras, O. (2006). Uncooled microbolometer detector: recent developments at ULIS. Opto-Electron Review , 14(1), 25-32. Bieszczad, G., Orżanowski, T., Sosnowski, T., Kastek, M. (2009). Method of detectors offset correction in thermovision camera with uncooled microbolometric focal plane array, Proc. of SPIE , 7481, 74810O. Orżanowski, T., Madura, H. (2009). Test and evaluation of reference-based nonuniformity
Piotr Grzejszczak and Roman Barlik
The article presents an analytical description of the turn-off process of the power MOSFET suitable for use in high-frequency converters. The purpose of this description is to explain the dynamic phenomena occurring inside the transistor and contributing to the switching power losses. The detailed description uses the results of simulation studies carried out using a very precise model of the CoolMOS transistor manufactured by Infineon (IPW60R070C6). The theoretical analysis has been verified in experimental measurements of power dissipated during turn-off transient of MOSFET operating in a full bridge converter with switching frequency of 100 kHz. To estimate these switching losses an original thermovision method based on the measurement of heat dissipated in the power semiconductor switches has been used. The obtained results confirm the correctness of the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis presented in this paper.
Anna Sobocińska and Maciej Sobociński
Spontaneuos combustion (or self-ignition) is the initiation of the burning process without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. This phenomenon often occurs during storage of such substances as hay, straw as well as coal or culm. Like any other type of fire, in addition to potential material losses, it also poses a threat to people. Thanks to the systematic monitoring of landfills using a thermal imaging camera, the dangerous effects of this phenomenon can be avoided. The article presents photos taken on a coal storage site where, as a result of both prolonged heat and wind exposition, a self-ignition phenomenon occurred that was detected early due to the use of thermovision.