monitored by Copernicus EMS, were already flooded before Storm Desmond and would continue to be for several weeks.
Efficient monitoring of flood events is fundamental to minimising the impact on life and property. Satellite remote sensing, due to its wide field of view and continuous coverage, is widely used in flood mapping and monitoring. The Sentinel 1 mission is ESA’s most recent syntheticaperture C-band radio detection and ranging (RADAR) (abbreviated as SAR) satellite with flood mapping capability ( Malenovský et al., 2012 ; Amitrano et al., 2014 ), continuing
]. However, a more common method, the patch-clamp technique [ 13 , 16 ], uses a pipette or microfabricated aperture into which a small section of the cell membrane (the ‘patch’) is drawn by way of an applied suction. The pipette is filled with an ionic solution and contains a single electrode to record currents through either individual ion channels or over the entire cell membrane. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique [ 16 ] requires a larger suction to be applied so that the membrane is ruptured. This ensures better access to the electrical properties inside the cell