Sterk PJ, Fabbri LM, Quanjer PhH, et al. Airways Responsiveness. Standardized challenge testing with pharmacological, physical and sensitizing stimuli in adults. Report Working Party for the Standardization of Lung Function Tests. European Community for Steel and Coal. Official Statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J. 1993;6(16):58-83.
American Thoracic Society. Guidelines for Metacholine and Exercise Challenge Testing -1999. Am Respir Crit Care Med. 2000
Jordan Minov, Jovanka Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Kristin Vasilevska, Snezana Risteska-Kuc, Saso Stoleski and Dragan Mijakoski
. Effects of passive smoking on respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness, lung function, and total serum IgE in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey: a crosssectional study. Lancet. 2001; 358: 2103-2109.
27. Quanjer PH, Tammeling GJ, Cotes JE, Pedersen OF, Peslin R, Yernault JC. Lung volumes and forced ventilatory flows.Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal. Official Statement of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J. 1993; 6 (16): 5-40.
Jakob Liermann, Patrick Naumann, Franco Fortunato, Thomas E. Schmid, Klaus-Josef Weber, Jürgen Debus and Stephanie E. Combs
treatment’s plating efficiency to the single reagent treatment one’s. Dose-response curves were created using the linear-quadratic model. 20
Combination effects were analyzed defining additivity according to Steel and Peckham. 21 For this purpose a dose-response curve was calculated that represents the course of the measured control curve at a pre-effect similar to the single reagent treatment’s effect („theoretical control-curve“). Additive effects were defined as area between the measured control curve and the theoretical one. Supraadditive effects were defined as
Tanja Marinko, Simona Borstnar, Rok Blagus, Jure Dolenc and Cvetka Bilban-Jakopin
95% CI (-0.10–0.50)
CI = confidental interval; E/A = mitral valve annulus ratio of early diastolic and atrial flow velocities; E/E m = ratio between the early diastolic blood flow velocitiy on the mitral valve annulus and early diastolic tissue Doppler velocity at the mitral ring; LA long – left atrial longitudinal diameter; LA tr = left atrial transversal diameter; LV EDD = left ventricular end diastolic diameter; LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction; LV ESD = left ventricular end systolic
Claudia Salvadori, Tanja Svara, Guido Rocchigiani, Francesca Millanta, Darja Pavlin, Maja Cemazar, Ursa Lampreht Tratar, Gregor Sersa, Natasa Tozon and Alessandro Poli
pulses generator Cliniporator™ (IGEA s.r.l., Carpi, Italy)). Two parallel stainless steel plate electrodes with 6 mm distance between them or 4 needle row electrodes with 4 mm distance according to the tumor size was used. Immediately after the electrochemotherapy 2 mg of the IL-12 plasmid was injected intradermally in equidistant locations around tumor nodule in two locations. 10 One high voltage pulse (amplitude to electrode distance ratio 1200 V/cm, duration 100 µs) and one low voltage pulse (amplitude to electrode distance ratio 140 V/cm, duration 400 µs) 12 were
Luca G. Campana, Fabrizio Dughiero, Michele Forzan, Carlo R. Rossi and Elisabetta Sieni
compared with the one obtained with lower distance needles. 30 Moreover, the effect of the field in term of electroporated cells has been also verified using potato tissue tests and in vitro tests. 28 , 30 , 31 Finally, in order to verify the electroporation, the results of simple preliminary tests carried on vegetable tissue are presented.
Materials and methods
The prototype of the grid electrode ( Figure 2 ) is composed by a flexible support and 67 (5 or 10 mm-long) stainless steel needles that can be inserted one by one and linked to the electrical
Simona Kranjc, Maja Cemazar, Gregor Sersa, Janez Scancar and Sabina Grabner
clinics, showing a local effectiveness of up to 80% of local tumour control. 30 - 33 The antitumour effectiveness of electrochemotherapy primarily relies on increased drug uptake and platinum binding to DNA. 25 , 29 , 34 However, some effects might be attributed to immune system modulation and changes in tumour blood flow. 27 , 35 - 36
Thus far, electroporation has been used to increase antitumour effectiveness of platinum (II) analogue 3P-SK containing squarato (skv = 3,4-dioxocyclobut-1-ene-1,2-diolate) and 3-Hmpy ligands (3P-SK, [Pt(3-Hmpy) 2 (skv)]). Indeed, 3P
Maria Scuderi, Matej Rebersek, Damijan Miklavcic and Janja Dermol-Cerne
between plate stainless-steel electrodes with 2 mm distance. 40 Between pulses, electrodes were cleaned in potassium-phosphate buffer (KPB, 10 mM KH 2 PO 4 /K 2 HPO 4 in ratio 40.5:9.5, 1 mM MgCl 2 , 250 mM sucrose) and dried with sterile gauze. 100 μs long monopolar pulses (8 pulses, delivered at repetition frequency 1 Hz, Figure 1A) of different voltages (80, 120, 160, 200, 240 V) were delivered by the commercially available BetaTech pulse generator (Electro cell B10, BetaTech, France) or BTX Gemini X2 pulse generator (Harvard Apparatus, USA). Short bipolar pulses
Taja Lozar, Klara Gersak, Maja Cemazar, Cvetka Grasic Kuhar and Tanja Jesenko
blood vessel via active intravasation involving epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) or by passive shedding due to compromised tumor vasculature. CTCs can exist in different phenotypes- epithelial, mesenchymal or both- hybrid epithelial/ mesenchymal phenotype (hybrid E/M). CTCs can be found in the form of individual cells or cell clusters; the latter show increased metastatic potential compared to individual CTCs. Platelet-CTC interaction in the blood vessel acts as a shield against the shear stress of blood flow, immune attack and also enables the adhesion to the