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Influence of tillage depth of a cultivator on the incorporation of crop residues of winter barley in a chernozem soil

chernozem (20.2% sand, 59.6% silt, 20.3% clay) with a pH of 7.6 and 2.2–2.3% organic substance. Immediately before tillage, the average gravimetric water content at a depth of 0–0.30 m was 15.6% (measured by weighting of soil samples before and after drying in an oven at 105°C). The winter barley, Hordeum vulgare var. distichon (L.) “ Caribic”, was harvested using an Axial-Flow 2366 combine harvester (Case IH, Racine, Wisconsin, USA; working width 4.8 m with straw chopper) with a grain yield of 7.9 t/ha. After all measurements had been carried out on the untreated

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Protozoan impact on bacterial biofilm formation

-196. Parry J. D., Holmes A. K., Unwin M. E., Laybourn-Parry J. 2007. The use of ultrasonic imaging to evaluate the effect of protozoan grazing and movement on the topography of bacterial biofilms. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 45: 364-370. Pederson K. 1990. Biofilm development on stainless steel and PCV surfaces in drinking water. Water Res. 24: 239-243. Pernthaler J., Posch T., Šimek K., Vrba J., Amann R., Psenner R. 1997. Contrasting bacterial strategies to coexist with a flagellate predator in an experimental microbial

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Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH) Networks

, zehnte, bearbeitete und erweiterte Auflage. Düsseldorf: Springer, 2006. [26] Loewen A. Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Aggregation komplexer Fernwärmenetze. Fraunhofer IRB 2001. [27] Claesson J., Bennet J. Multipol Method to Compute the Conductive Heat Flows to and Between Pipes in a Cylinder, Notes on Heat Transfer. Universität of Lund, 1987. [28] Grigull U., Franz G. Wärmeverluste erdverlegter Rohrleitungen. Wärme-, Klima und Sanitärtechnik 1970. [29] Franz G., Grigull U. Wärmeverluste von beheizten Rohrleitungen im Erdboden Heat Loss of

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Small Scale Gasification Application and Perspectives in Circular Economy

. New York: Elsevier; 2010. [25] De Souza-Santos M. L. Solid fuels combustion and gasification, 2nd ed. USA: CRC Press, 2010. [26] Hla S. S., Roberts D. G., Harris D. J. A numerical model for understanding the behaviour of coals in an entrained-flow gasifier. Fuel Processing Technology 2015:134:424-440. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.12.053 [27] Knoef H. A. M. Inventory of biomass gasifier manufacturers and installations. Final Report to European Commission. Enschede: University of Twente, 2000. [28

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Impact of curved shaped energy dissipaters downstream of head structures on both water energy dissipation and irrigation water quality

guide walls, J. Eng. Sci. (JES) Assiut University, 40(6):1599-1609. Habib A.A., Nassar M.A., 2013, Characteristics of flow and scour under the effect of curved steel roughness elements, Egypt. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. (EIJEST) 16(3). Kucukali S., Cokgor S., 2009, Energy concept for predicting hydraulic jump aeration efficiency, J. Environ. Eng. 135(2): 105-107. Nakasone H., 1987, Study of aeration at weirs and cascades, J. Environ. Eng. 113(1): 64-81. Negm A.M., Abdel-Aal G.M., Habib A.A., Owais T

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Aging concrete structures: a review of mechanics and concepts

prediction models for time-dependent processes are paramount for the construction of new and the maintenance of existing structures within the frameworks of life cycle cost analyses and sustainability. In order to accurately identify, assess and predict a structural system’s performance and full safety potential, all influences that a real structure is likely to face have to be captured accurately. For concrete, these are (mildly reinforced as well as prestressed, depending on the type of structure), among others, aging, cracking, shrinkage, creep, steel relaxation

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Impact of slurry application method on phosphorus loss in runoff from grassland soils during periods of high soil moisture content

first rainfall simulation event, a period of approximately 48 hours. On the same day that slurry was applied, the sub-plots were hydrologically isolated from overland and shallow sub-surface flow by inserting stainless steel surrounds into the soil along the sides and across the up-slope end of each plot to a depth of 0.05 m. Rainfall simulation Rainfall simulations were carried out using the same methodology as described in a number of similar studies: Brennan et al . (2011) , O’Rourke et al . (2012) , McConnell et al . (2013 a , b ), Doody et al

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Fortification of milk with phytosterol and its effect on sensory and physicochemical properties

10–12 h and then churned into butter using a domestic mixer (National, Bengaluru, India). The butter was washed with cold water to remove excess buttermilk and was heated with continuous stirring in a stainless steel container. The heating was adjusted so that the temperature rose very slowly and did not exceed 100°C. Finally, the clarified fat was filtered using Whatman Grade No. 4 filter paper to obtain butteroil with a moisture content of <0.3%. Preparation of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion DATEM were used as an emulsifier and butteroil was used as a source

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A field-based comparison of ammonia emissions from six Irish soil types following urea fertiliser application

used to measure NH 3 volatilisation. Each wind tunnel unit consisted of (i) a canopy (0.5 m × 2 m) made of polycarbonate, (ii) a galvanised sheet steel duct and (iii) a control box. The wind tunnel canopy was placed over each lysimeter immediately after urea application and it stayed in place until the end of the experiment. Wind speed through the wind tunnels was set at 1 m/s (air flow rate of 0.229 m 3 /s), which was chosen to mimic atmospheric wind speed above the soil surface. Air entering and leaving the wind tunnel canopy was sampled and pumped through two

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Solutions for the automation of operational monitoring activities for agricultural and forestry tasks

, hook, inhaul, and unhook) as well. Meanwhile, the load cell and the inclinometer were placed between the hook and the chokers and on the choker, respectively. These sensors were used to measure the pulling force applied by the carriage and the consequent inclination of the steel wire in case of dragging during the inhaul phase. The aim of this application is to have an automatic and fast estimation about the hauled weights without the need of any manual measurement for the operator during the hooking phases. For this computation, two assumptions were necessary. The

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