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Iga Andrasiak and Tomasz Wróbel

Streszczenie

Wraz ze stale rosnącą liczbą badań w dziedzinie hematologii, znajomość metod statystycznych wykorzystywanych w analizie i interpretacji wyników stała się niezbędnym narzędziem pracy klinicystów. W artykule omówiono najczęściej stosowane testy statystyczne oraz zdefiniowano punkty końcowe stosowane podczas raportowania rezultatów badań klinicznych. Testy statystyczne funkcjonują na zasadzie testowania hipotez. Odrzucenie lub nieodrzucenie danej hipotezy zależy od wybranego poziomu istotności oraz wyliczonej wartości p. Z kolei otrzymany przedział ufności wskazuje na wielkość efektu i precyzję oszacowania. W hematologii głównie raportowanymi punktami końcowymi są: całkowite przeżycie (ang. overall survival – OS), przeżycie wolne od progresji (ang. progression-free survival – PFS), odpowiedź na leczenie (ang. overall response rate – ORR) oraz coraz częściej spotykana, ocena terapii raportowana przez pacjenta (patient reported outcome – PRO). Biorąc pod uwagę kierunek rozwoju medycyny, znajomość biostatystyki jest niezbędna w podejmowaniu decyzji terapeutycznych, a także ocenianiu, interpretowaniu i raportowaniu wyników przeprowadzonych badań.

Open access

Isaiah J. Nirmal Kumar, George Basil, Rita Nirmal Kumar, Poliyaparambil Ravi Sajish and Viyol Shailendra

Abstract

Investigations on physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen), including dissolved nutrients (PO4-P, NO3-N, SiO4-Si) and chlorophyll-a were carried out in the water off the mouth of the Narmada estuary from July 2008 to June 2009. The multivariate statistics and principal component analysis applied to the datasets, indicated two factors during the whole study period influencing variability in the water to the extent of 72%. Principal axis factoring and alpha factoring have been used to observe the mode of association of parameters and their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality. The results indicated the addition of phosphates and silicates to the coastal water by the Narmada estuary from natural sources during study period. The study indicated that the Narmada estuary adds sufficiently well-oxygenated, nutrient-rich water to the coastal region.

Open access

Arefyev Igor, Volovik Аleksandr and Klavdiev Аleksandr

Abstract

Recently, the transport problem is acute to minimize accidents and disasters, caused by the failure of the functional elements. Today it is still not a fully developed theory of the solution of such problems. The authors propose an approach to perform this task, based on the methodology of extreme statistics and information Janes principle. Example given in the article and the calculations prove this possibility, up to an extreme level of statistical sampling, when it reaches capacity. The method allows for a decision on a sample survey, when the nature of the distribution is not known anything other than the expectation of a random variable.

Open access

Hamid Bouchelkia, Fadila Belarbi and Boualem Remini

Abstract

The sediment transport in rivers in Algeria is very high. However, it is poorly quantified in some wadis because of the absence and the shortage of data especially the concentration of fine particles and also the unavailability of gauging stations. To fill this gap, a technique for estimating sediment yield, based on data recorded at the gauging station has been developed. The estimation of suspended sediment yield was conducted by a statistical analysis with double correlation on average daily flow and solid concentrations. The results obtained by applying this model to the watershed Chellif are very encouraging because the correlation coefficients of the found models are between 61% and 91% for the first correlation and between 86% and 97% for the second correlation. The estimated quantity of suspended sediment load is between 2.35 and 4.12 million tonnes per year, it appears important; This is due to the vulnerability of the Chellif basin facing erosion, the importance of its area and the importance of fluid flows in wadi Cheliff and its torrential regime. Mention here some of the results and their significance to the study.

Open access

Roman Slavík, Markéta Julinová and Martina Labudíková

Screening of the Spatial Distribution of Risk Metals in Topsoil from an Industrial Complex

For the sustainable development of urban areas, it is necessary to identify if environmental pollution exists and where hot spot pollution sources lie. In this study, 280 topsoil samples were collected from an industry estate in Zlin (the Czech Republic). In these samples, the presence of toxic metal was analyzed by energy dispersed X-Ray fluorescence (ED-XRF), and statistical analysis revealed that the major anthropogenic contaminants in the topsoil were Pb, Zn and Sn. Further contaminant analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) determined the maximum contents of 28558.47 mg/kg for Pb, 1132.35 mg/kg for Sn and 2865.22 mg/kg for Zn in selected topsoil samples. According to soil pollution index results, the main proportion of topsoil is contaminated, with the possible sources of contamination being traffic and a nearby municipal heating plant. This study proves that the combination of preliminary ED-XRF topsoil analysis, a multivariative statistical approach, AAS analysis and the geographical information system (GIS) is effective and together form a powerful tool for mapping topsoil contamination and conducting an environmental risk assessment.

Open access

Kamila Bednarz

References Domański, Cz., Pruska, K. (2000). Nieklasyczne metody statystyczne. Warszawa: PWE. Fisz, M. (1969). Rachunek prawdopodobieństwa i statystyka matematyczna. Warszawa: PWN. Krysicki, W., Bartos, J., Dyczka, W., Królikowska, K., Wasilewski, M. (1995). Rachunek prawdopodobieństwa i statystyka matematyczna w zadaniach. Cz. II. Statystyka matematyczna. Warszawa: PWN. Krzyśko, M. (1997). Statystyka matematyczna. Cz. II. Poznań: UAM

Open access

Dariusz Ampuła

8. References [1] Praca zbiorowa – Metodyka badań diagnostycznych amunicji – Indeks N-5001b – 1985r. Archiwum WITU; [2] Statystyka 10 – Statsoft Polska 2010 r. – oprogramowanie komputerowe; [3] Karty badań środków bojowych – Archiwum WITU; [4] W. Starzyńska – Statystyka praktyczna – Wydawnictwo PWN, Warszawa 2005 r. [5] A. Luszniewicz, T. Słaby – Statystyka z pakietem komputerowym Statisica - Wydawnictwo C.H. Beck, Warszawa 2003 r. [6] D. Ampuła – Parametryczny system oceny magazynowanej amunicji – Rozprawa

Open access

Janusz Szymczak

References Statystyka wypadków lotniczych lotnictwa wojskowego (1990÷2004) , OBL Sił Powietrznych RP Statystyka wypadków lotniczych lotnictwa cywilnego (1989÷1997) , materiały ZBL-GILC RP NTSB analysis of helicopter accidents , Interavia, No. 2, 1982 Małachow J. A.: Problemy Biezopastnosti Poliotow, No. 1, Moscow, 1984 Józef Żurek et al, Żywotność śmigłowców , Publ. by ITE-PIB, Radom, 2006

Open access

Małgorzata Łuniewska

References Grabiński, T., Wydymus, S. & Zeliaś, A. (1989). Metody taksonomii numerycznej w modelowaniu zjawisk społeczno-gospodarczych. Warszawa: PWN. Hozer, J. (Ed.). (1996). Opis statystyczny. Szczecin: Uniwersytet Szczeciński. Krzysztofiak, M. (1981). Statystyka. Warszawa: PWN. Pociecha, J., Podolec, B., Sokołowski, A. & Zając, K. (1988). Metody taksonomiczne w badaniach społeczno-ekonomicznych. PWN: Warszawa. Tarczyński

Open access

Anna Niewiadomska

Summary

The increase in interest in the topic of aging is associated - to some extent - with the currently unavoidable demographic changes. On the one hand, life expectancy increases, on the other hand, fertility rates fall. As a consequence the proportion of younger generations is reduced, and the share of older generations. A disturbing fact has been the low level of economic activity of the elderly, among others in Europe for many years. The reasons for this are complex. However, looking for ways and means that would allow greater involvement of older people in the labour market should be considered. One such method, which in developed countries is gaining more and more interest is the management of age. The purpose of this article is to indicate the extent to which age management can be useful in improving the professional activity of generations of people 50 +. The background to the issue is the statistics on the labor force participation of older people in Europe.