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corresponding to all data points inside the 2σ error band ( Hercman and Pawlak, 2012 ).
The samples used for stableisotope analyses were drilled using a Dremel with a drill bit diameter of 0.5 mm. All samples for isotopic profile were taken directly from axial part of stalagmite at approximately 2.0 ± 0.2 mm increments from the stalagmite base at 0 mm to the discontinuity at 1,630 mm, producing 798 samples. Additionally, four profiles were sampled along the growing layers at different distances from the stalagmite base, i.e ., profile I at 122 ± 0.2 mm
climatic factors in polluted areas ( Malik et al ., 2012 ).
Year-on-year variations in tree-ring widths are mainly caused by meteorological conditions. Industrial pollution impairs the sensitivity of trees to climatic factors. However, the trees retain their year-on-year tree-ring width changes, even during periods of high-pollution emissions.
Experiments and analyses of the stableisotope composition of annual tree rings conducted by various scientists (e.g., Craig, 1954 ; Burk and Stuiver, 1981 ; Leavitt and Long, 1982 ; Edwards and Fritz, 1986 ; Ehrelinger
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response of pines to individual climate factors (temperature, sunshine, precipitation, air humidity) has been observed (for example Sensula et al ., 2015a , 2015b ).
The climate changes and industrial pollutant emissions occur during physiological processes responsible for plant growth and also can influence stableisotope composition of wood and its components ( Craig, 1954 ; Farquhar and Lloyd, 1993 ; McCarroll and Loader, 2004 ; Sensuła, 2015 ). There has been much discussion about the biological effects of pollutant pressure on trees, which concerned yearly