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B. Kalandyk, R. Zapała, J. Kasińska, M. Wróbel and M. Balicki

The article presents the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast duplex stainless steel type 23Cr-5Mn-2Ni-3Mo. It has been shown that the structure of the tested cast steel is composed of ferrite enriched in Cr, Mo and Si, and austenite enriched in Mn and Ni. In the initial state, at the interface, precipitates rich in Cr and Mo were present. A high carbon content (0.08%C) in this cast steel indicates that probably those were complex carbides of the M23C6 type and/or σ phase. Studies have proved that the solution annealing conducted at 1060°C was not sufficient for their full dissolution, while at the solutioning temperature of 1150°C, the structure of the tested material was composed of ferrite and austenite.

Partial replacement of Ni by two other austenite-forming elements, which are Mn and N, has ensured obtaining mechanical properties comparable to cast duplex 24Cr-5Ni-3Mo steel of the second generation. Basing on the results of static tensile test, a twice higher yield strength was proved to be obtained, compared to the cast austenitic 18Cr-9Ni and 19Cr-11Ni-2Mo steel commonly used in the foundry industry. In addition to the high yield strength (YS = 547 ÷ 572 MPa), the tested cast steel was characterized by the following mechanical properties: UTS = 731 ÷ 750 MPa, EL = 21 ÷ 29.5%, R.A. = 43 ÷ 52%, hardness 256 ÷ 266 HB. Fractures formed in mechanical tests showed ductile-brittle character.

Open access

V. Vishnuh, S. Sudhakar, K. Tamilarasu, P. Prabhakaran and R. Rajasekar

Abstract

In the present work the effect of nitrogen on WC9 alloy at various weight percentages was analyzed and tested for their microstructural and mechanical properties. The nitrogen was added at 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 wt. % in the solid form as nitrided ferrochrome to WC9 alloy. The samples were heat treated by solution annealing process at a temperature of 1100°C for 5 hours to improve the austenitic formation. Microstructures and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, hardness, % elongation and % reduction of WC9-N alloy were examined. It was observed that increasing nitrogen wt. % increases the mechanical properties. The obtained mechanical properties were compared with base WC9 and C12A grade steel, where it was found to be replacement for C12A grade steel at its composition at lower end. The material cost analysis for WC9-N and C12A grade steel was done and both were compared.

Open access

I. Yarici, M. Erol, E. Celik and Y. Ozturk

vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The measurements were interpreted with the emphasis on coercivity and magnetization as a function of annealing temperature. 2 Experimental Ce-substituted YIG particles (Ce-YIG) were prepared using an aqueous sol-gel method. The gel was obtained from aqueous solutions prepared from Ce-, Y- and Fe-based precursors, a solvent and a chelating agent. The precursor materials, Fe 2,4-pentanedionate (0.1774 mg), Y 2-ethylhexanoate (0.1458 mg) and Ce 2-ethylehexonate (0.014 mg), were dissolved in methanol and glacial acetic acid (GAA

Open access

Najeeb Alam Khan and Amber Shaikh

, Architecture and Functionalities, Computer, 25(5), 1992, 76–79 [31] K. A. Dowsland, Hill-Climbing, Simulated Annealing and the Steiner Problem in Graphs, Eng. Optim, 17, 1991, 91–107 [32] B. Caruntu, C. Bota, Approximate polynomial solutions of the nonlinear Lane-Emden type equations arising in astrophysics using the squared remainder minimization method, Comput. Phys. Commun, 184, 2013, 1643–1648 [33] J. A. Khan, M. A. Z. Raja, I. M. Qureshi, Numerical treatment of nonlinear Emden–Fowler equation using stochastic technique, Ann Math Artif Intell, 63

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Jozef Liday, Peter Vogrinčič, Viliam Vretenár, Mário Kotlár, Marián Marton and Vlastimil Reháček

References [1] MURAKAMI, M. et al : Ohmic contacts for compound semiconductors, Crit. Rev.in Solid State and Mater. Sci. 23 No. 1 (1998). [2] YOUN, D. H. et al : Ohmic contacts to p-type GaN, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37 (1998), 1768. [3] CHEN, L. C. et al : GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ni/AuBe transparent conductive layers, Solid State Electron 47 (2003), 1843. [4] SONG, J. O. et al : Low-resistance Ni-Zn solid solution /Pd ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,, Semicond. Sci. Technol

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M. Podolski

annealing algorithm to the solution of the n/m/Cmax flowshop problem”, Computers & Operations Research, 17(3), 243-253, 1990. 14. S. T. Ng, Y. Zhang, “Optimizing construction time and cost using ant colony optimization approach”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 134(9), 721-728, 2008. 15. M. Podolski, “Analysis of new applications of job scheduling theory in construction work organization” (in Polish), PhD thesis, Wrocław University of Technology, Wrocław, Poland, 2008, http://www.dbc.wroc.pl/Content/2515/Podolski

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M. Klimek and P. Łebkowski

. Łebkowski, “Heuristics for project scheduling with discounted cash flows optimisation”, Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech ., 63(3), 613‒622 (2015). [12] P. Leyman and M. Vanhoucke, “Payment models and net present value optimization for resource-constrained project scheduling”, Comput. Ind. Eng. , 91, 139‒153 (2016). [13] S.S. Liu and C.J. Wang, “Resource-constrained construction project scheduling model for profit maximization considering cash flow”, Autom. Constr. , 17(8), 966‒974 (2008). [14] M. Mika, G. Waligóra, and J. Węglarz, “Simulated annealing and tabu

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Deepak Kumar, Sudheer Ch, Shashi Mathur and Jan Adamowski

. An evolutionary algorithm approach to estimate the parameters of power quality signals. International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems. New Dehli, India, 12–15 Dec. 2006. IEE p. 1–6. R othberg E. 2007. An evolutionary algorithm for polishing mixed integer programming solutions. INFORMS Journal on Computing. Vol. 19. Iss. 4 p. 534–541. S aadat H., A damowski J., B onnell R., S harifi F., N amdar M., A le -E brahim S. 2011. Land use and land cover classification over a large area in Iran based on single date analysis of

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Bo Chen and Klaus von Gadow

. - Ecological Modelling, 94, 111-123. Carter, D. R., Vogitazis, M., Moss, C. B., Arvantis, L. G. 1997. Ecosystem management or infeasible guidelines? Implications of adjacency restrictions for wildlife habitat and timber production. - Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 1302-1310. Chen, B. W., Gadow, K.v. 2002. Timber harvest planning with spatial objectives, using the method of simulated annealing. - Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 121, 25-34 Clutter, J. L., Fortson, J. C., Pienaar, L. V

Open access

Guanlin Zhao, Yong Zou, Hui Zhang and Zengda Zou

Abstract

Amorphous Ni-P alloys were prepared via electroless plating and annealing at 200°C at different times to obtain different microstructures. The effects of low-temperature annealing on the properties of amorphous Ni-P alloys were studied. The local atomic structure of the annealed amorphous Ni-P alloys was analyzed by calculating the atomic pair distribution function from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The results indicate that the properties of the annealed amorphous Ni-P alloys are closely related to the order atomic cluster size. However, these annealed Ni-P alloys maintained their amorphous structure at different annealing times. The variation in microhardness is in agreement with the change in cluster size. By contrast, the corrosion resistance of the annealed alloys in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution increases with the decrease in order cluster size.