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R. Tadaszak, A. Łukowiak and L. Golonka

-4005(01)00899-1 [8] Chvojka T., Vrkoslav V., Jelínek I., Jindřich J., Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 100,1–2, (2004), 246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2003.12.040 [9] Golonka L., Bull. Polish Acad. Sci., 54(2), (2006), 223. [10] Brinker J., Scherer G.W., Sol-gel science: the physics and chemistry of sol-gel processing, Academic Press, Inc, 1990. [11] Łukowiak A., Stre’k W., Journal Of Sol-Gel Science And Technology, 50,2, (2010), 201.

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Mariusz Walczak and Kazimierz Drozd

-230, 51, 2001. 4. Cabanas-Polo S., Boccaccini A. R.: Electrophoretic deposition of nanoscale TiO2: technology and applications. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 36, 265, 2016. 5. Głuszek J.: Future prospects of sol-gel method application for producing protective coatings. Inżynieria Materiałowa, 5, 351, 2002. 6. Guillén C. et al.: Leveling effect of sol-gel SiO2 coatings onto metallic foil substrates. Surf. Coat. Technol., 205-210, 138, 2001. 7. Holm S.: A simple sequential rejective method

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J. Judes and V. Kamaraj

[1] Judes J., Kamaraj V., J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn., 49 (2009), 159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10971-008-1853-6 [2] Judes J., Kamaraj V., Mater. Sci.-Poland, 27(2) (2009), 407. [3] Wang J.A., Valenzuela M.A., Salmones J., Vazquez A., Garcia-ruiz A., Bokhimi X., Catal. Today, 68 (2001), 21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5861(01)00319-4 [4] Mcmeeking R.M., Evans A. G., J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 65(5) (1982), 242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1151-2916.1982.tb10426.x

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M.E. Azim Araghi, N. Shaban and M. Bahar

[ 4 ], sol-gel [5–7], hydrothermal [ 8 , 9 ], spray pyrolysis [ 10 ], combustion synthesis [ 11 ], and chemical co-precipitation methods [ 12 ]. Furthermore, other innovative methods, such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) [ 13 ], R.F. sputtering [ 14 ], chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electrochemical [ 15 ], electrostatic spray assisted vapor deposition (ESAVD) [ 16 ] have been used to synthesize BST powders. Compared with other methods, solgel process, because of its numerous advantages in producing barium-strontium titanate ceramics, has received a strong

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R. Tafrishi, E. Taheri-Nassaj, A. Sadighzadeh and M. Jafari Eskandari

., L uyten J., L eysen R., J. Membrane. Sci. , 207 (2002), 73. [9] R ahman M., Ceramic Processing and Sintering , 2 nd Edition, Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, 2003. [10] S ekulic -K uzmanovic J., Mesoporous and microporous titania membranes , PhD Thesis, University of Twente, 2004. [11] F ernandez T., J ose G., M athew S., R ejikumar P., U nnikrishnan N., J. Sol-Gel Sci. Techn. , 41 (2007), 163. [12] Z hai J., Z hang L., Y ao X., J. Non-Cryst. Solids , 260 (1999), 160. [13] I smail AA., I brahim I., Appl. Catal. A

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Kais Elghniji, Zohra Anna-Rabah and Elimame Elaloui

1 Introduction Titanium dioxide, TiO 2 , due to its unique physical and chemical properties such as high refractive index and high dielectric constant, has been used as a material for numerous applications in the field of photoluminescent materials [ 1 ], photocatalysis [ 2 , 3 ], optics [ 4 ] and electrode materials [ 5 ]. For higher performance of these applications, it is necessary to control the shape of TiO 2 nanoparticles in desired structures, such as powders, films and monolithic gels. To achieve the flexible control of the shapes, sol-gel route

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J. Gawronski and B. Pietrzyk

. Marciniak, A. Stanishevsky, E. To -chitsky, P. Louda, P. Couvrat, M. Denis, P. Loudin, Influence of carbon coatings origin on the properties important for biomedical application. Diamond and Related Materials 5 , 1185-1188 (1996). [16] B. Pietrzyk, J. Gawronski, T. B łaszczyk, Effect of carbon interlayer on protective properties of hydroxyapatite coating deposited on 316L stainless steel by sol-gel method. Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics 49 , 7-8 (2010).

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M. Nocuń, S. Kwaśny and J. Zontek

[5] Kaniou S., Pitarakis K., Barlagianni I., Poulios I., Chemosphere, 60 (2005), 372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.069 [6] Aegerter M.A., Almeida R., Soutar A., Tadanaga K., Yang H., Watanabe T., J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol., 47 (2008), 203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10971-008-1761-9 [7] Kominami H., Takada Y., Yamagiwa H., Kera Y., Inoue M., J. Mater. Sci. Letter, 15 (1996), 197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00274449 [8] Sopyan I., Watanabe M., Murasawa S., Hashimoto K

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A. Hunyek, C. Sirisathitkul, P. Harding and D. Harding

.-Poland, 23 (2005), 87. [16] Brinker C.J., Scherer G.W., Sol-Gel Science, Academic Press, London, 1990. [17] Klug H.P., Alexander L.E., X-ray Diffraction Procedure, Wiley, New York, 1954. [18] Ren P., Zhang J., Deng H., J. Wuhan Univ. Technol., 24 (2009) 927. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11595-009-6927-y [19] Vivekanandhan S., Venkateswarlu M., Satyanarayana N., Mater. Lett., 58 (2004), 2717. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2004.02.030

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M. Sitarz, M. Drajewicz, R. Jadach, E. Długoń, M. Leśniak, M. Reben, A. Wajda, M. Gawęda and B. Burtan-Gwizdała

. Drajewicz, J. Wasylak, Optica Applicata 38 , 421-430 (2008). [8] B.D. Fabes, D. R.A. Uhlmann, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 73 , 978-988 (1990). [9] C. Ronald, G. Nicholson, P.S. Nicholson, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 55 , 152-157 (1972). [10] H.G. Scott, J. Mat. Sci. 10 , 1527-1535 (1975). [11] C.J. Brinker, G.W. Scherer, Sol-gel science – The physics and chemistry of sol-gel science. 1990, Academic Press, Boston. [12] L. Kurpaska, J. Favergeon, L. Lahoche, G. Moulin, J-M. Roelandt, Materials Science Forum 696 , 176-182 (2011). [13] L. Kurpaska, J