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Abstract

Shortening the technological spinning processes, aiming at the reduction in production costs, causes problems with keeping up a high quality of yarn. Of great significance is the use of autolevellers that not only equalize the distribution of fiber linear density but also straighten the fibers and lay them parallel to the product axis. Consequently, they replace the machines eliminated from technological lines and contribute to the improvement in the quality of intermediate products and yarns. Using an example of the cotton combed spinning system, the article presents the analysis of the possibilities of using a short-term autoleveller with a modified operation algorithm that takes into account the phenomenon of sliver retardation after the process of short-term regulation. The regulation of draft was used before and after combing. The quality parameters of slivers used for feeding roving frames or rotor spinning machines were analyzed.

Abstract

The paper presents assumptions for the fiber movement model in the drawing mechanism field, aiming at establishing a regulation equation with a modified operation algorithm of the short-term draft regulator of slivers made of staple fibers. The model takes into account the sliver retardation phenomena and makes it possible to increase the evenness of slivers feeding successive machines in the technological process. As a result of this, the evenness of yarn will be increased contributing to an improvement in the quality of flat textile fabrics. This model, despite simplifying assumptions, sufficiently precisely presents the phenomenon of reducing the effect of drawing waves on the distribution of the linear mass of the fiber stream.

Abstract

This article provides three models to predict rotor spun yarn characteristics which are breaking strength, breaking elongation and unevenness. These models used noncorrelated raw material characteristics and some processing parameters. For this purpose, five different cotton blends were processed into rotor spun yarns having different metric numbers (Nm10, Nm15, Nm18, Nm22, Nm30 and Nm37). Each count was spun at different twist levels. Response surface method was used to estimate yarn quality characteristics and to study variable effects on these characteristics. In this study, predicting models are given by the analysis of response surface after many iterations in which nonsignificant terms are excluded for more accuracy and precision. It was shown that yarn count, twist and sliver properties had considerable effects on the open-end rotor spun yarn properties. This study can help industrial application since it allows a quality management-prediction based on input variables such as fibre characteristics and process parameters.

Abstract

Lasers are widely used in a variety of manufacturing processes including: depaneling, drilling, cutting, repair, trimming, micromachining. Polypropylene foils are intensively investigated as materials with great number of potential applications. Laser cutting is a major operation used in forming these materials and preparing the final workpieces. At the moment, the main challenge when cutting polypropylene is to obtain high quality products characterized by optimum sheared edge condition, minimum surface damage, freedom from burrs, slivers, edge wave, distortion, residual stresses and to obtain minimum width of HAZ zone. The amount of adjusTab. process parameters and the fact that the influence of these parameters on the process is not fully understood makes it difficult to control the cutting process. In practice, the right setup for the lasers is mostly found by trial and error combined with experience. Therefore, the final product frequently has serious defects. The paper presents the possibility of using fiber and diode lasers for forming of workpieces from polypropylene multilayer foil using cutting technology. The effect of selected process parameters and conditions on quality of sheared edge and material degradation is discussed.

Abstract

This paper analyzes the relationship between technological parameters of spinning of 100% CV Vortex yarns of different counts and its selected geometrical parameters (a lead of helix of wrapping fibre ribbon, yarn diameter) as well as yarn properties. The number of twist of wrapping fibre layer is determined. The effect of the yarn delivery speed, hollow spindle diameter, and the main draft on the hairiness, mass irregularity, tenacity, elongation, resistance to abrasion and bending rigidity of Vortex yarn is observed. The yarn properties are compared with the properties of open-end rotor spun yarns. Slivers of the same spinning lot were used for the production of both kinds of yarn. The results showed that the delivery speed in combination with spindle diameter affects yarn diameter, hairiness and abrasion resistance. Mass irregularity and imperfections of yarn is mainly affected by the main draft of drafting unit. Technological parameters of spinning do not affect the level of bending rigidity of the Vortex yarn. Tested rotor spun yarns had a larger diameter, higher hairiness, lower tenacity and higher elongation, lower mass irregularity and number of imperfections, higher abrasion resistance and lower bending rigidity compared to tested Vortex spun yarns.

Abstract

The Alpine nappe stack in the Penninic-Austroalpine boundary zone in the Rätikon (Austria) contains a 4×1 km tectonic sliver of meta-diorite, known as the Schwarzhorn Amphibolite. It was deformed and metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies and is unconformably overlain by unmetamorphic Lower Triassic sandstone, indicating pre-Triassic metamorphism. Cataclastic deformation and brecciation of the amphibolite is related to normal faulting and block tilting during Jurassic rifting. Zircon dating of the Schwarzhorn Amphibolite using LA-ICP-MS gave a U-Pb age of 529+9/-8 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization age of the protolith. Geochemical characteristics indicate formation of the magmatic protolith in a supra-subduction zone setting. The Cambrian protolith age identifies the Schwarzhorn Amphibolite as a pre-Variscan element within the Austroalpine basement. Similar calc-alkaline igneous rocks of Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian age are found in the Upper Austroalpine Silvretta Nappe nearby and in several other Variscan basement units of the Alps, interpreted to have formed in a peri-Gondwanan active-margin or island-arc setting.

Abstract

In coastal regions, earthquakes caused severe damage to marine structures. Many researchers have conducted numerical investigations in order to understand the dynamic behavior of these structures. The most frequently used model in numerical calculations of soil is the linear-elastic perfectly plastic model with a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion (MC model). It is recommended to use this model to represent a first-order approximation of soil behavior. Therefore, it is necessary to accommodate soil constitutive models for the specific geotechnical problems.

In this paper, three soil constitutive models with different accuracy were applied by using the two-dimensional finite element software PLAXIS to study the behavior of pile-supported wharf embedded in rock dike, under the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. These models are: a linear-elastic perfectly plastic model (MC model), an elastoplastic model with isotropic hardening (HS model), and the Hardening Soil model with an extension to the small-strain stiffness (HSS model).

A typical pile-supported wharf structure with batter piles from the western United States ports was selected to perform the study. The wharf included cut-slope (sliver) rock dike configuration, which is constituted by a thin layer of rockfill overlaid by a slope of loose sand. The foundation soil and the backfill soil behind the wharf were all dense sand. The soil parameters used in the study were calibrated in numerical soil element tests (Oedometer and Triaxial tests).

The wharf displacement and pore pressure results obtained using models with different accuracy were compared to the numerical results of Heidary-Torkamani et al.[] It was found that the Hardening Soil model with small-strain stiffness (HSS model) gives clearly better results than the MC and HS models.

Afterwards, the pile displacements in sloping rockfill were analyzed. The displacement time histories of the rock dike at the top and at the toe were also exposed. It can be noted that during the earthquake there was a significant lateral ground displacement at the upper part of the embankment due to the liquefaction of loose sand. This movement caused displacement at the dike top greater than its displacement at the toe. Consequently, the behavior of the wharf was affected and the pile displacements were important, specially the piles closest to the dike top.

Journal, 28, 819-839. [5] Audivert, R. (1974). The Relation between the Drafting Force, Draft, and Setting in the roller-drafting of staple-fiber slivers. Journal of Textile Institute, 65, 325-327. [6] Su, C.I., Lo, K.J and Lee, J.Y. (1998). Drafting Force of Fine-Denier Polyester Fibers. Textile Research Journal, 68(8), 559-563. [7] Su, C.I. and Lo, K.J. (2000). Optimum Drafting Conditions of Fine- Denier Polyester Spun Yarn. Textile Research Journal, 70(2), 93-97. [8] Su, C.I., Liu, C.H and Jiang, J.Y. (2003). Drafting Force of Twin Spun yarn, Textile Research Journal

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