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Łukasz Kryst, Agnieszka Woronkowicz, Małgorzata Kowal and Jan Sobiecki

in prevalence of overweight and obesity, and in extent of overweight index in children and adolescence (3-18 years) from Kraków, Poland in 1983, 2000 and 2010. Public Health Nutr 19(6):1035-46. Kryst Ł, Bilińska I, Kowal M, Woronkowicz A, Sobiecki J. 2017. Long-term changes in skinfolds thickness in children and adolescents aged 3-18 from Krakow (Poland), within the last 30 years (from 1983 to 2010). Obes Facts 10(suppl 1):1-274. Kryst Ł, Woronkowicz A, Kowal M, Pilecki MW, Sobiecki J. 2016. Abdominal obesity screening tools in the

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Anna Książek, Aleksandra Zagrodna, Jadwiga Pietraszewska and Małgorzata Słowińska -Lisowska

turnover markers in professional football players and in physically inactive men. Physiol Res, 2014, 63 (2), 237-243. 12. Lohman T.G., Skinfolds and body density and their relation to body fatness: A review. Hum Biol, 1981, 53 (2), 181-225. 13. Brozek J., Grande F., Anderson J.T., Keys A., Densitometric analysis of body composition: Revision of some quantitative assumptions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1963, 110, 113-140, doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1963. tb17079.x. 14. Holick M.F., Vitamin D deficiency in 2010

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Beat Knechtle, Patrizia Knechtle and Thomas Rosemann

., Anthropometric and training variables related to 10 km running performance. Br J Sports Med , 1986, 20 (4), 170-173. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.20.4.170. Arrese A.L., Ostáriz E.S., Skinfold thicknesses associated with distance running performance in highly trained runners. J Sports Sci , 2006, 24 (1), 69-76. DOI: 10.1080/02640410500127751. Legaz A., Eston R., Changes in performance, skinfold thicknesses, and fat patterning after three years of intense athletic conditioning in high level runners. Br J Sports Med , 2005, 39 (11), 851

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Aleksandra Stachoń, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Anna Burdukiewicz and Justyna Andrzejewska

changes and relationship to cardiovascular fitness in Canadians Hum Biol 1986 58 6 955 973 Available from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41463836 10. Martin R., Saller K., Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstellung. Band I [in German]. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1959. Martin R. Saller K. Lehrbuch der Anthropologie in systematischer Darstellung. Band I [in German] Gustav Fischer Verlag Stuttgart 1959 11. Slaughter M.H., Lohman T.G., Boileau R.A., Horswill C.A., Stillman R.J., van Loan M.D. et al. Skinfold

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Mahfouz Al-Bachir and Hussam Ahhmad

. Obes Rev 9:582-93. Cherkaoui Dekkaki I, Mouane N, Ettair S, Meskini T, Bouklouze A, Barkat A. 2011. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in children: A study in government primary schools in Rabat, Morocco. Archives of Medical Research 42:703-8. Chinn S, Rona RJ. 1994. Trends in weight-forheight and triceps skinfold thickness for English and Scottish children, 1972-and 1982-1990. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 8:90-106. Clayton B. 1994. Department of Health. Eat well an action plan from the nutrition task force to achieve

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Mbelege R. Nkwana, Kotsedi D. Monyeki, Moloko Matshipi, Machoene D. Sekgala, Nthai E. Ramoshaba and Tshephang M. J. Mashiane

;3(2). 9. Sengupta P, Chaudhuri P, Bhattacharya K. Screening obesity by direct and derived anthropometric indices with evaluation of physical efficiency among female college students of Kolkata. Ann Medical Health Sci Res. 2013; 3(4):517-522; doi: 10.4103/2141-9248.122066. 10. McRae MP. Male and female differences invariability with estimating body fat composition using skinfold calipers. J Chiropr Med. 2010;9(4);157-161; doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2010.07.002. 11. Koley S, Singh AP. An association of dominant hand grip strength with some

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Jasmina Pluncevic-Gligoroska, Lidija Todorovska, Beti Dejanova, Vesela Maleska, Sanja Mancevska and Slobodan Nikolic

Abstract

Objectives: The focus of this study is on anthropometric characteristics of footballers in the Republic of Macedonia, and the aim is to provide normative data for selected anthropometric parameters for adult male footballers in our country.

Material and method: The study included eight hundred (800) adult male footballers, aged 24.06 ± 4.8y (age range 18–35y), who have undertaken routine sport medical examinations over a ten-year period. The football players were divided into six age – specific subgroups (“up to 20”; “up to 22”; “up to 24”; “up to 26”; “up to 28” and “over 28” years). Anthropometric measurements were made by Matiegka's protocols and body composition components were determined.

Results: Average values of body height (178.8 ± 6.7 cm), body weight (77.72 ± 7.9 kg), lean body mass (66.21 ± 6.36 kg), body components (MM% = 53.04; BM% = 17.15; FM% = 14.7%) and a large series of anthropometric measurements which define the footballers' anthropometric dimensions were obtained. The distribution of the adipose tissue regarding the body and limbs showed that the skinfolds were thickest on the lower limbs and thinnest on the arms.

Conclusions: The adult football players in Republic of Macedonia were insignificantly variable in height and body mass from their counter parts from European and American teams. The football players up to 20 year, who played in the senior national football league were lighter and smaller than their older colleagues. The football players aged from 20 to 35 years were insignificantly variable in height, body mass, and anthropometric dimensions of limbs and trunk.

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Alejandro Vaquera, Santiago Santos, José Gerardo Villa, Juan Carlos Morante and Vicente García-Tormo

Abstract

The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.

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Atanas G. Baltadjiev, Stefka V. Vladeva and Dimitar B. Bahariev

Abstract

Background: The complex study of adipose tissue in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is of importance for the clinical course and prognosis of the disease.

Aim: To study the distribution of adipose tissue in Bulgarian females with T2DM.

Patients and methods: The study included 92 women with T2DM (age range 40-60 years). The control group consisted of 40 age-matched women. Measurement parameters: height, weight, 9 skinfolds (sf) – sfTriceps, sfBiceps brachii, sfForearm, sfSubscapular, sfXrib, sfAbdomen, sfSuprailiaca, sfThigh, and sfCalf; bioelectrical impedance analysis - % body fat tissue and visceral fat tissue. Calculated indexes: body mass index (BMI), the ratio sfTrunk to sfLimbs, the ratio skin folds upper half of body/skin folds lower half of body, fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass.

Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the means of sfTriceps, sfXrib, sfThigh, sfCalf, % body fat tissue, visceral fat tissue, and fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass between the diabetic and healthy women. The body composition of diabetic females aged 40-60 years contained a larger adipose component than controls. Visceral adipose tissue which determines the body composition is a reliable indicator of the health risks in diabetic women.

Conclusion: The pattern of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in diabetic females aged 40-60 yrs was primarily in the upper torso region and less so in the limbs. In the controls adipose tissue is accumulated primarily in the limbs and in the lower part of the body.

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Anna Pastuszak, Joanna Lewandowska, Krzysztof Buśko and Jadwiga Charzewska

Abstract

The study is aimed at evaluation of the effect of regular physical activity on total and subcutaneous body fat and its distribution in boys aged 10 to 16 years. A three-year longitudinal study was carried out in order to monitor physical development in 237 boys from sports schools and regular schools in Warsaw, Poland. The boys were selected so that their rate of puberty changes was similar based on evaluation of voice and facial hair. The authors measured 5 skinfolds in the following sites: triceps, calf, subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds. The percentage fraction of total body fat in body mass was measured by means of Tanita TBF 300 electronic body composition analyser. A limb fat to trunk fat ratio (LF/TF) was also calculated in order to evaluate the type of distribution of subcutaneous fat in boys and monitor its changes as affected by regular high physical activity throughout puberty. Lower total body fat and subcutaneous fat in boys from sports schools was the effect of considerably higher physical activity. It was demonstrated that with some minimal values of total body fat and subcutaneous fat, physical activity did not cause a reduction in body fat. It was found that elevated physical activity in boys is conducive to development of a more limb-oriented (peripheral) fatness, which is more favourable to human health