The Association Erysimo - Trifolietum Micev. 1977 in Bulgaria and Some Remarks on its Mediterranean Character
We endeavor to enlarge the knowledge about Bulgarian vegetation diversity. Data on seminatural grasslands containing 344 relevés, collected in Southeast Bulgaria were analyzed by the combine method, using TWIN-SPAN and the Cocktail method. The Erysimo diffusii-Trifolietum angustifolii association and the alliance Trifolion cherleri were established for the first time in Bulgaria. So far the presence of this association was known for Macedonia. The aims of our study are to present more data about the Erysimo-Trifolietum in Bulgaria and to make some comments about its affiliation to Helianthemetea guttati. The association is characterized ecologically and floristically. Analysis of the floristic elements shows that the most numerous are sub-Mediterranean species. Analysis of the life forms shows that these communities are hemicryptophyte-therophytic. A review of syntaxonomical systems and association assignment to higher syntaxa were made. According to current European vege-tation surveys the association should be related to class Helianthemetea guttati. Our results reveal an intermediate character of the studied vegetation - closed dry grasslands, with distinct presence of Festuco-Brometea species with a high percent of therophytes and Mediterranean floristic elements related to Helianthemetea guttati as well.
Vassilev Kiril, Apostolova Iva and Pedashenko Hristo
A total of 546 releves collected in western Bulgaria and referred to Festuco-Brometea were classified into the alliances Festucion valesiacae, Saturejion montanae, Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati and Chrysopogono-Danthonion calycinae. All releves assigned to alliance Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati were further classified towards lower level which resulted in the description of a new association - Hieracio pilosellae-Festucetum dalmaticae and two new subassociations added to ass. Galio lovcense-Artemisietum chamaemelifoliae. Both associations were ecologically well differentiated on the basis of soil parameters (pH and humus content) as well as some additional factors (exposition, land use, etc.).
For the first time, an overview of plant communities in Slovenia is presented according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. In total 588 associations (and some communities classified into higher syntaxa) belonging to 51 classes have been registered in Slovenia. Additionally 149 syntaxa are mentioned as registered in the field or in, the literature, but not documented with relevé material. Syntaxonomical classification is based on the "EuroChecklist" and includes also the Slovenian written definition of the high-rank syntaxa.
New Dry Grassland Associations from the Ausoni-Aurunci Mountains (Central Italy) - Syntaxonomical Updating and Discussion on the Higher Rank Syntaxa
A phytosociological study on the most extensive dry grassland communities of the coastal limestone massif of the Ausoni-Aurunci mountains (southern Latium, central Italy) is here presented. Violo pseudogracilis-Koelerietum splendentis ass. nova is restricted to the montane belt of the Aurunci mountains where it is dynamically related to the mesophilous Ostrya carpinifolia or Fagus sylvatica woodlands. Helichryso italici-Brometum erecti ass. nova is found within the upper hilly and submontane belt of both the Ausoni mountains (typical aspect) and the Aurunci mountains (subassociation saturejetosum montanae), where it is dynamically related with termophilous Ostrya carpinifolia woods and mesophilous Quercus ilex woods. Helichryso-Brometum is differentiated from Violo-Koelerietum in that it has a higher incidence of the steno-Mediterranean therophytic component. As far as the higher rank syntaxa are concerned, in this study the following changes were made in accordance with the rules of ICPN: the name Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti Biondi et al. 1995 was considered invalid due to the invalidity of its nomenclatural type Asperulo purpureae-Brometum erecti. In contrast, the validity of the old name Cytiso spinescentis-Bromion erecti Bonin 1978 was demonstrated and its nomenclatural type, Lavandulo-Asphodelinetum luteae Bonin 1978, was lectotypified. Thus Cytiso spinescenti-Bromion erecti Bonin 1978 henceforth substitutes Phleo ambigui-Bromion erecti (nom. inval.) as the syntaxonomical reference for the endemic alliance of the hilly and montane limestone dry grasslands of the central and southern Apennines. Cytiso-Bromion is here divided into two suballiances: Sideritidenion italicae Biondi et al. 1995, Phleo ambigui-Bromenion erecti Biondi et al. ex Di Pietro suball. nov. Cytiso-Bromion belong to the new suborder Festuco circummediterraneae-Seslerienalia nitidae (Ubaldi 2003) stat. nov. and to the order Artemisio albae-Brometalia erecti Ubaldi ex Mucina & Dengler 2009. New and updated packages of characteristic and differential species for both Cytiso spinescenti-Bromion erecti and its related suballiances are proposed. Furthermore the validity of the name Astragaletum calabrici Giacomini & Gentile ex Bonin 1978, was proved and the association lectotypified. This association, which was previously included in Cytiso-Bromion erecti, is moved into Koelerio brutiae-Astragalion calabrici. Finally some interesting coenological and syndynamical similarities with Scorzonero-Chrysopogonetalia western Dalmatia submediterranean dry pastures are discussed.
Elena A. Belonovskaya, Ladislav Mucina and Jean-Paul Theurillat
We present description of a new class for the high-altitude screes of the Caucasus (the Lamio tomentosi-Chaerophylletea humilis) and two alliances such as the Scrophulario minimae-Symphyolomion graveolentis (Chaerophylletalia humilis, Lamio tomentosi-Chaerophylletea humilis) and the Scrophulario variegatae-Epilobion dodonaei (Epilobietalia fleischeri, Thlaspietea rotundifolii).
Rossen Tzonev, Tatiana Lysenko, Chavdar Gusev and Petar Zhelev
The Halophytic Vegetation in South-East Bulgaria and Along the Black Sea Coast
The paper presents results of a syntaxonomic analysis of the herbaceous phytocoenoses on the salt steppes, meadows and marshes in Southeastern Bulgaria, and along the Southern Black Sea Coast. The halophytic vegetation is distributed mostly in the Tundzha Lowland and the large salt lakes along the Black Sea Coast, where the saline soils occupy large territories. Most syntaxa identified in the paper are well-known and wide-spread in Central and Eastern Europe (Salicornietum prostratae, Suaedetum maritimae, Juncetum maritimae etc.), but there are also some specific vegetation types, which are presented by endemic associations as Petrosimonio brachiatae-Puccinellietum convolutae, Bupleuro tenuissimae-Camphorosmetum monspeliacae. The most widespread one is Diantho pallidiflori-Puccinellietum convolutae. It demonstrates a big variation in the appearance and the dominant structure of the described phytocoenoses. The comparision of the Bulgarian halophytic vegetation with other places in Europe shows its similarities with these vegetation types distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean and Central and Eastern Europe.
This study focuses on mesic and xeric grasslands of mostly secondary origin, and that are influenced by human activity. Mesic grasslands are traditionally used for hay-making, and xeric ones for pastures. Over the last 20 years, livestock farming in Bulgaria has significantly declined so that less grass is needed. Many types of grasslands are no longer used and lots of abandoned fields can be found nowadays in Bulgaria. The analyses in this study are based on 868 releves collected on xeric and mesic grasslands according to the methodological approach of Braun- Blanquet. As a result, five alliances within two classes are recognized: the class Festuco-Brometea, represented by three alliances, namely Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati, Chrysopogono-Danthonion calycinae and Festucion valesiacae, and the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, represented by two alliances, namely Arrhenatherion elatioris and Cynosurion cristati. The majority of the managed grasslands are situated in close proximity to settlements. Most of the abandoned areas (30%) are found within Cirsio-Brachypodion alliance. These grasslands are characterized by the highest values of total cover of vegetation. They are located in the most distant and least accessible areas. If use is not resumed, all the abandoned grasslands will be under threat of extinction in the near future. At the same time, many arable lands have been abandoned and turned into grasslands by the processes of secondary succession.
A list of corrected and typified grassland communities of the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea Tx. 1937 occurring in Serbia was provided. The nomenclature rules of the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature were strictly followed. Syntaxonomic affiliation of communities to higher syntaxa was assessed according to the existing syntaxonomical schemes for Serbia, i.e. according to the position determined by the original source. Higher syntaxa followed the synsystem of the so-called “EuroVegChecklist”. Since syntaxonomic disagreements concerning a certain plant association’s position within the whole classification system have not been discussed, such a list should serve as the starting point for a further revision of the status of grassland communities in Serbia. So far, a total of 87 plant communities of the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea were described for Serbia.
The list provided here will enable more precise and more accurate mapping of vegetation in Serbia, as well as classification of these communities into the Habitat Directive which will enable the establishment of the Red list of Habitats for Serbia.
A Review of Potentillo Ternatae — Nardion Strictae Alliance
A classification of the Nardus stricta dominated communities in the Balkan Range is presented. Two associations are identified: Nardetum strictae and Campanulo alpinae — Nardetum strictae nom. nov. The alliance Potentillo ternatae — Nardion strictae is typified and some comments on its distribution range and syntaxonomical affiliation to the higher units are presented. A synopsis is included of all available associations referred to Potentillo ternatae — Nardion strictae.
The Forest Vegetation of the Tolfa-Ceriti Mountains (Northern Latium - Central Italy)
The forests of the Tolfa-Ceriti mountains (Latium, central Italy) were investigated through a phytosociological approach. 249 relevés were performed and treated with multivariate analysis. 13 woodland communities were identified, of which 7 belong to Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae, 1 to Fagetalia sylvaticae, 1 to Populetalia and 4 to Quercetalia ilicis. The thermophilous Turkey oak-forests occurring on the trachytic hills of the Ceriti Mountains and on the flysch substrates of the Tolfa Mountains were included in Rubio peregrinae-Quercetum cerridis ass. nova. Quercus cerris and Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa woodland communities of the footslopes have been ascribed to Fraxino oxycarpae-Quercetum cerridis, while the widespread mesophilus Turkey oak forests have been ascribed to Melico-Quercetum cerridis. Cephalantero longifoliae-Quercetum cerridis has been restricted to acid and oligotrophic soils. Quercus petraea woodlands, occurring on trachytic substrates have been described as a new association named Carici olbiensis-Quercetum petraeae ass. nova. All these mixed oak woods have been included in the alliance Crataego laevigatae-Quercion cerridis Arrigoni 1997. The nomenclatural problems concerning the prior name Teucrio siculi-Quercion cerridis Ubaldi 1988 are also discussed. The beech forests of the higher altitudes have been included in Fraxino orni-Fagetum sylvaticae, while the Alnus glutinosa ravine woodlands have been described as belonging to the new association Polysticho setiferi-Alnetum glutinosae. Secondary communities of Acer monspessulanum and Acer campestre developed on flysch substrates, and of Erica arborea and Arbutus unedo (Erico-Arbutetum unedonis) developed on trachytic substrates, have also been identified. Finally two types of Quercus ilex wood have been identified: Cyclamino repandi-Quercetum ilicis, on sandstones, and the new association Arbuto unedonis-Quercetum ilicis ass. nova on volcanic soils. This latter community can be considered as a coenological and geographical vicariant in central Italy of the sicilian Erico-Quercetum ilicis.