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Marquita Volken

Trust for Excavation and Research, 2003). Partridge, Eric. Origins: A short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English . (London: Routledge, 2006). Swann, June. ‘Walking before shoe heels’. Transactions of Obuv v Historii/The Shoes in History 2004. Compact disc 2007, Muzeum Jihovchodni, Moray, Zlin, 2007. Thomas, Susan. Medieval Footwear from Coventry; A Catalogue of the Collection of Coventry Museums . (Coventry: Libraries Arts and Museum Department City of Coventry, 1980). Volken, Marquita. Archaeological Footwear, Development of Shoe

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Jonathan Sinclair, Andrew Greenhalgh, Paul J. Taylor, Christopher James Edmundson, Darrell Brooks and Sarah Jane Hobbs

Med , 2003, 37 (3), 239-244, doi: 10. 1136/bjsm.37.3.239. 4. Stacoff A., Reinschmidt C., Stüssi E., The movement of the heel within a running shoe. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 1992, 24, 6, 695-701. 5. Stacoff A., Kalin X., Stussi E., The effects of shoes on the torsion and rearfoot motion in running. Med Sci Sports Exerc , 1991, 23, 4, 482-490. 6. Stacoff A., Nigg B.M., Reinschmidt C., van den Bogert A.J., Lundberg A., Tibiocalcaneal kinematics of barefoot versus shod running. J Biomech , 2000, 33 (11), 1387-1395, doi

Open access

Fatemeh Alirezaei Noghondar and Nahid Khoshraftar Yazdi

. 2016;29:1-7. 7. Russell KA, Palmieri RM, Zinder SM, Ingersoll CD. Sex differences in valgus knee angle during a single leg drop jump. J Athl Train. 2006;41(2):166-171. 8. Ly QH, Alaoui A, Erlicher S, Baly L. Towards a footwear design tool: influence of shoe midsole properties and ground stiffness on the impact force during running. J Biomech. 2010;43(2):310-317; doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.08.029. 9. Bates BT, Stergiou N. Performance accommodation to midsole hardness during running. J Hum Mov Stud. 1996; 31

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Benedikt A. Gasser, Adrian M. Stäuber, Glenn Lurmann, Fabio A. Breil, Hans H. Hoppeler and Michael Vogt

Abstract

Purpose. This study explored the effects of unstable shoe design on oxygen consumption. Methods. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were measured in 16 individuals while barefoot, wearing unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology) and wearing conventional sport shoes while standing and walking on a treadmill and for 5 individuals while walking around a 400 m track. Results. When wearing the MBT shoes, a significant (p < 0.01) increase of 9.3 ± 5.2% in VO2 was measured while standing quietly for 6 min. No differences in VO2 and HR were observed between the MBT shoes or weight-adjusted conventional shoes (to match the weight of the MBT shoes) while walking on a treadmill. However, significant increases (p < 0.01) in VO2 (4.4 ± 8.2%) and HR (3.6 ± 7.3%) were observed for the MBT shoes compared with being barefoot. No significant differences in VO2 and HR were recorded while walking around a 400 m track either with MBT shoes, weight-adjusted conventional shoes or barefoot. Nonetheless, a comparison of the MBT shoes with barefoot revealed a tendency for VO2 to be higher when wearing the MBT shoes (7.1 ± 6.5%, p < 0.1) although HR was not significantly affected. Conclusions. The unstable shoe design predominantly effects oxygen consumption while standing, most likely due to increased muscle activity of the lower extremities.

Open access

D.A. McConnell, D.G. Doody, C.T. Elliott, D.I. Matthews and C.P. Ferris

management practices need to be adopted to minimise the risk of P being lost once manure is applied. The system of applying slurry can influence P losses in surface runoff, with Withers et al . (2003) highlighting that surface runoff can contribute 50–98% of the measured P loads for sites receiving surface applications of manure or fertilisers. While Lalor et al . (2011 , 2104) have evaluated the impact of the trailing shoe technique under Irish conditions on nitrogen recovery and NH 3 emissions, its impact on P loss was not evaluated. However, in a recent plot scale

Open access

Xiaole Sun, Yang Yang, Lin Wang, Xini Zhang and Weijie Fu

musculoskeletal system of lower extremities ( Davis et al., 2017 ). Repetitive impact forces experienced during long distance running normally reach the level of magnitude ranging from two to three times the body mass and are considered to induce damage to the musculoskeletal system of the lower extremity ( Nordin et al., 2017 ). In order to reduce the magnitude of impact force and a corresponding high loading rate, the concept of “cushioning” was proposed in shoe manufacturing to reduce such impacts and potential impact-related running injuries. However, no scientific

Open access

Xi Wang, Shen Zhang and Weijie Fu

manufacturers have been focusing on designing shoes that can attenuate a shock wave, and thus the concept of cushioning has been widely used since the 1970s ( Clarke et al., 1983 ). Current investigations into impact forces have focused not only on the magnitude, timing and the loading rate, but also on the reactions and muscular responses of the musculoskeletal system ( Brüggemann et al., 2011 ). A series of concepts about the effects of impacts has been provided during the past ten years ( Boyer and Nigg, 2007 ; Nigg and Wakeling, 2001 ). Impacts are regarded as input

Open access

Sam Ibeneme and Ann Ekeanyanwu

medical scientists on high heels. Inter. J. Health Service, 28(2): 201-225. 14. Nordin N., Frankel V.H. (2003) Biomecânica básica do sistema músculo esquelético. 3ª ed. Guanabara Koogan. p. 401. 15. Olaogun M.O.B., Edewor N.S. (1994) The Effect of Foot Wear on Postural Stability. J. Nig. Soc. Physioth., 6: 37-39. 16. Rossi W.A. (1999) Why Shoes Make Normal Gait Impossible. Pediatry Management. Retrieved from www. unshod.org 17. Santos A. (2005) Postura corporal: um guia para todos. São Paulo: Summus

Open access

Beat Knechtle, Patrizia Knechtle and Thomas Rosemann

-1104571. Knechtle B., Rosemann T., No correlation of skin-fold thickness and race performance in male mountain bike ultra-marathoners. Med Sport , 2009, 13, 146-150, doi: 10.2478/v10036-009-0023-4. McKelvie S.J., Valliant P.M., Asu M.E., Physical training and personality factors as predictors of marathon time and training injury. Percept Mot Skills , 1985, 60, 551-566. Stefanyshyn D., Fusco C., Increased shoe bending stiffness increases sprint performance. Sports Biomech , 2004, 3, 55-66. Robbins S

Open access

Aleksandra Truszczyńska, Zbigniew Trzaskoma, Zuzanna Stypińska, Justyna Drzał-Grabiec and Adam Tarnowski

References 1. Agostini V., A. Sbrollini, C. Cavallini, A. Busso, G. Pignata, M. Knaflitz (2016) The role of central vision in posture: Postural sway adaptations in Stargardt patients. Gait Posture, 43: 233-238. 2. Bae Y.H., M. Ko, Y.S. Park, S.M. Lee (2015) Effect of revised high-heeled shoes on foot pressure and static balance during standing. J. Phys. Ther. Sci., 27(4): 1129-1131. 3. Błaszczyk J.W. (2016) The use of fortce-plate posturography in the assessment of postural instability. Gait Posture, 441-446. 4. Boisgontier M.P., B