despite the fact that the country ranks 22nd in the Global Peace Index? Why did Muslims and Islam become the main topics despite the fact that a homogeneous community of Muslim does not exist in Slovakia and all the migrants from the MENA region Middle East and the North Africa region. actually sidestep the country? Given the fact that I apply and use a specific theoretical framework, the wider-asked questions can be reformulated as follows:
Q 1 : Did the Slovak political actors use the migrationcrisis, and did they securitize this topic during the pre-election and
humanitarian aspects of the crisis and on the necessity to develop an EU-wide solution; meanwhile, other top politicians securitizing the migrationcrisis are framing it in terms of border controls and reduction of numbers of asylum seekers. In September 2015, the official document summarizing the party’s position on the crisis, as well as the proposed solution, was approved. Some of the ambiguities remain even within the document. On the one hand, the ČSSD stresses that “ [t] he whole situation is a test of action readiness and coherence of the EU-28 countries. No single EU
Esses, V. M., Medianu, S., & Lawson, A. S. (2013). Uncertainty, Threat, and the Role of the Media in Promoting the Dehumanization of Immigrants and Refugees. Journal of Social Issues , 69 (3), 518–536. https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12027
Huysmans, J. (2000). The European Union and the SecuritizationofMigration. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies , 38 (5), 751–777. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5965.00263
Jørgensen, M. B., & Thomsen, T. L. (2012). Crises Now and Then—Comparing Integration Policy
, available: http://epl.delfi.ee/news/eesti/pagulasvastasuskasvas-suvega-pea-poole-vorra?id=72363563
Eesti Päevaleht (2015b). Hirm pagulaste ees (in Estonian). Published on June 26th, 2015, available: http://epl.delfi.ee/news/eesti/hirm-pagulasteees?id=71780185
Estonian Integration Strategy (2008). Adopted on April 10th, 2008, amended on July 11, 2009, available: http://www.kogu.ee/public/documents/Loimumiskava_2008-2013_ENG_VV_11.06.pdf
Estonian Public Broadcasting (2015a). Migrationcrisis polarizes opinions in Estonia
included themes such as refugees, migrants, refugee crisis, and migrationcrisis, we can conclude that more than one discourse was visible during the analyzed period; moreover, in this case, we can also observe that not one of this discourse was so influential that it was able to hold for more than a short period.
We can also certainly agree with the notion that in the analyzed period, the securitizationof the migration discourse was visible in the communication of the political elites. Especially at the end of the reporting period, political elites (especially the
an Integrating Europe, Malden, Blackwell.
Finotelli, C& Arango J2011, ‘Regularisation of Unauthorised Immigrants in Italy and Spain: Determinants and Effects’, Documents d’Anàlisi Geogràfica, vol. 57, no. 13, pp. 495-515.
Hume, D 1896, A Treatise of Human Nature, ed with an analytical index LA Selby-Bigge, Clarendon, Oxford.
Huysmans, J 2000, ‘The European Union and the SecuritizationofMigration’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 751-777.
Huysmans, J 2006, The Politics of
of danger completely.
Third and finally, Ľubomír Zvada from Palacký University in Olomouc in the Czech Republic contributed to the special section with the text called Securitizationof the MigrationCrisis and Islamophobic Rhetoric: The 2016 Slovak Parliamentary Elections as a Case Study . Zvada focuses on the “migrationcrisis” in Slovakia and thus his contribution brings to an end the focus on the CEE realm. Unlike the two previous texts introduced already in this editorial for which a focus on Slovakia would be far beyond their scope of interest, Zvada
in the US, migration and the emphasis on border control, another mainstay of the campaign, point to the securitisationof civil rights. The recent relative success of Jeremy Corbyn can be attributed to the successful attempt of the Labour Party to shift the discussion towards the loss of welfare and the impact of austerity across the British society, using the slogan ‘For the many, not the few’. For Natalie Fenton (2017) , this success is a sign of democracy fighting back.
In these cases, the campaigns successfully re-signified existing concerns and experiences
Albert, M., & Buzan, B. (2011). Securitization, sectors and functional differentiation. Security dialogue, 42(4-5), 413-425.
Aven, T. (2013). On the meaning of a black swan in a risk context. Safety science, 57, 44-51.
Cameron, D. R., and Orenstein, M.A. "Post-Soviet Authoritarianism: The Influence of Russia in Its" Near Abroad"." Post-Soviet Affairs 28, no. 1 (2012): 1-44.
CERT Estonia annual review 2007. Available: (https://www.ria.ee/public/CERT/CERT_2007_aastakokkuv6te.pdf (in
in constitutional terms since the Glorious Revolution and the Act of Settlement in 1700. British national identity only became problematic with Caribbean migration in the 1960s, with Asian migration in the late 20th century and with membership of the European Community more recently. As ‘Great Britain’ became a problematic source of identity, ‘Englishness’ slowly arose as a crisisof identity in the 1990s ( Bryant, 2003 ). ‘England’ has increasingly assumed the character of an ‘elegy’ (Scruton, 2001). Social citizenship in Great Britain was constructed based on a