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Agnieszka Dąbrowska, Krystyna Piotrowska-Weryszko, Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska and Ryszard Sawicki

Ekonomiczne. Dyakowska, J. (1959). Podręcznik palynologii. Metody i problemy . Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwa Geologiczne. Emberlin, J., Detandt, M., Gehrig, R., Jaeger, S., Nolard, N., Rantio-Lehtimäki, A. (2002). Responses in the start of Betula (birch) pollen seasons to recent changes in spring temperatures across. International Journal of Biometeorology, 46 , 159-170. Emberlin, J., Jones, S., Bailey, J., Caulton, E., Corden, J., Dubbels, S., … Spencer, T. (1994). Variation in the start of the grass pollen season at selected sites in the United

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Stanimir Dimitrov, Vesna Karapetkovska-Hristova, Ljupce Kochoski, Biljana Trajkovska, Borche Makarijoski, Vesna Prodanovska-Poposka and Godswill Ntsomboh-Ntsefong

REFERENCES 1. Bloemhof, S., van der Waaij, E.H., Merks, J.W., Knol, E.F. (2008). Sow line differences in heat stress tolerance expressed in reproductive performance traits. J Anim Sci. 86 (12): 3330-3337. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2008-0862 PMid:18708608 2. Love, R.J., Evans, G., Klupiec, C. (1993). Seasonal effects on fertility in gilts and sows. J. Reprod. Fertil. 48 (Suppl.), 191–206. 3. Schwarz, T., Nowicki, J., Tuz, R. (2009). Reproductive performance of polish large white sows in intensive production - effect of parity and season. Ann

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R. Strzeżek, K. Szemplińska, K. Filipowicz and W. Kordan

and its links with other ejaculate quality indicators. Rocz Nauk Zoot 24: 85-95. Henning H, Masal C, Herr A, Wolf C, Urhausen C, Beineke A, Beyerbach M, Kramer S, Gunzel-Apel AR ( 2014 ) Effect of short-term scrotal hyperthermia on spermatological parameters, testicular blood flow and gonadal tissue in dogs. Reprod Domest Anim 49: 145-157. Johnston SD, Kamolpatana K, Root-Kustritz MV, Johnston GR ( 2000 ) Prostatic disorders in the dog. Anim Reprod Sci 60-61: 405-415. Kozdrowski R, Dubiel A ( 2004 ) The effect of season on the properties of wild

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Friday Ocheja Zakari, Joseph Olusegun Ayo, Mohammed Umar Kawu and Ibrahim Rekwot

. J., 36: 566-575. Ayo J.O., Oladele S.B., Fayomi A. (2002). Behavioural reactions of cattle to stress situations: A review. J. Agric.Technol., 8: 15-20. Ayo J.O., Dzenda T., Zakari F.O. (2008). Individual and diurnal variations in rectal temperature, respiratory, and heart rate of pack donkeys during the early rainy season. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 28: 281-288. Ayo J.O., Dzenda T., Olaifa F, Ake S.A., Sani I. (2014). Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in rectal temperature, respiration and heart rate of pack donkeys in a

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K. Stasiak and B. Janicki

-439. Ciereszko A, Ottobre JS, Glogowski J (2000) Effects of season and breed on sperm acrosin activity and semen quality of boars. Anim Reprod Sci 64: 89-96. Marı SI, Rawe V, Biancotti JC, Charreau EH, Dain L, Vazquez- Levin MH (2003) Biochemical and molecular studies of the proacrosin/acrosin system in patients with unexplained infertility. Fertil Steril 79: 1676-1679.

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K. Kozioł and M. Koziorowski

-168. Garde JJ, Martinez-Pastor F, Gomendio M, Malo AF, Soler AJ, Fernández-Santos MR, Esteso MC, Garcia AJ, Anel L, Roldán ER ( 2006 ) The application of reproductive technologies to natural populations of red deer. Reprod Domest Anim 41: 93-102. Giżejewski Z ( 2004 ) Effect of season on characteristics of red deer ( Cervus elaphus L. ) semen collected using modified artificial vagina. Reprod Biol 4: 51-66. Goeritz F, Quest M, Wagener A, Fassbender M, Broich A, Hildebrandt TB, Hofmann RR, Blottner S ( 2003 ) Seasonal timing of sperm production in roe deer

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Elżbieta Radzka and Katarzyna Rymuza

season precipitation data in North America East Rockies J. Climate, 8(4), 897-931. Goovaerts P., 1997. Geostatistics for natural resources evaluation. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. Górniak A., 2000. Climate of Podlasie Province. IMGW Białystok Branch, Białystok, Poland. Holden N.M. and Brereton A.J., 2004. Definition of agroclimatic regions in Ireland using hydrothermal and crop yield data. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 122, 175-191. Kasina M., 2008. Variation of snow cover chemistry between Kraków

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Małgorzata Kępińska-Kasprzak and Przemysław Mager

REFERENCES Atlas Klimatu Polski (Climate Atlas of Poland) 2005. H. Lorenc (Ed.) IMGW, Warszawa. BARTOSZEK K., WĘGRZYN A. 2011: Uwarunkowania cyrkulacyjne początku okresu wegetacyjnego w Polsce Wschodniej (The circulation conditions of the vegetation season beginning in eastern Poland). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lublin – Polonia , B , 1, 93–102 [Engl. summ.]. BARTOSZEK K., WĘGRZYN A., KASZEWSKI B. M., SIŁUCH M. 2012: Porównanie wybranych metod wyznaczania dat początku i końca okresu wegetacyjnego na przykładzie Lubelszczyzny

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Igor Dzadzovski, Irena Celeska, Igor Ulchar, Aleksandar Janevski and Danijela Kirovski

Abstract

Chios is a breed of sheep selected for milk production, with metabolic features typical for a dairy sheep breed. The energy requirements of pregnant sheep is increase in the last weeks of gestation. Metabolic imbalance in the late pregnancy in sheep, usually cause a metabolic disorder known as pregnancy toxemia. Additionally, a pregnant sheep exposed to low environmental temperatures has increased energy demands, due to its adaptation to undesirable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profile of Chios sheep exposed to different environmental conditions.Two groups of ewes were instigated. First group included 8 pregnant ewes with clinical signs of pregnancy toxemia exposed to cold stress during the winter season. The second group included 8 non-pregnant, clinically healthy ewes, that were examined during the non-breeding period, in the spring season. Blood samples were taken and serum concentrations of glucose, beta-hydroxybutirate (BHBA), total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, triglyceride and cholesterol, as well as activity of AST and ALP were determined. Pregnant ewes exposed to cold stress had significantly lower levels of glucose and total protein, and significantly higher levels of BHBA, albumin and AST in the serum compared to non-pregnant ewes that were in optimal environmental conditions. There was no significant difference between the serum levels of urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides and ALP among the groups. In conclusion, low environmental temperature and poor feeding during the winter season caused metabolic distress in pregnant ewes during the early winter season.

Open access

Agata Adamska, Jarosława Rutkowska and Wiesław Przybylski

Polish). Scientific Dissertation. Lublin, Poland, Publisher Academy of Agriculture, 321: 1-111. Barłowska J., Litwińczuk Z., Kowal M. (2014). Influence of production season and lactation stage on the technological suitability of milk from cows of various breeds fed in the TMRsystem. Ann. Anim. Sci., 14: 649-661. Buccioni A., Decandia M., Minieri S., Molle G., Cabiddu A. (2012). Lipid metabolism in the rumen: new insights on lipolysis and biohydrogenation with an emphasis on the role of endogenous plant factors. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 174