midwives and the contribution they make to health care systems as they tackle public health challenges depend, to a large extent, on the legislative framework governing their professional practice and determining who can enter the profession. 3 In legislation concerning midwives, the definition and scope of practice of midwifery are very important. Once the occupation of midwife is defined, the scope of practice can be determined and a general societal understanding of the role of midwives can be attained. The definition of midwives can also serve as a reference point
Jie Li, Hong Lu and Rui Hou
. Master thesis. University of Warsaw, Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies. Olszewski R., Gotlib D. (eds.), 2013, Rola bazy danych obiektów topograficznych w tworzeniu infrastruktury informacji przestrzennej w Polsce . Warszawa: Główny Urząd Geodezji i Kartografii. Panecki T., 2014, Creating a common symbol classification for a new historical geoportal of Poland . „Miscellanea Geographica” Vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 34–40. Panecki T., 2015, The comparison of the scope of the content and classification methods on topographical maps of Polish territory
Victor Junnan Pan
Erlewine (2017) suggests that certain sentence-final particles (SFPs) in Mandarin Chinese such as “sentential le” and eryi are located lower than the C-domain, using a number of arguments relating to the scopal interaction of these SFPs, subjects, and other verb phrase (vP) level elements. The present paper proposes an alternative view of the phenomena considered by Erlewine (2017) and maintains the claim that sentential le and eryi are C-domain elements. First, I argue that shi ‘be’, in the negative form – bu shi ‘not be’ – should be analyzed as an independent verb, which takes a clausal complement headed by le or eryi. The apparent narrow scope of le and eryi is due to the biclausal analysis of the entire sentence. Second, the sentence-initial determiner phrase (DP) cannot be analyzed as the real subject of the verb shi ‘be’ but must be analyzed as the matrix topic of the entire sentence and, therefore, is higher than the complementizer phrase (CP) headed by le or eryi. This explains why sometimes le or eryi does not have scope over the subject. Third, the wh-subject cannot get an indefinite reading in a sentence with a final particle le because the ∃-closure triggered by le applies at the I′-level by excluding the subject systematically (Huang 1982). The ∃-quantifier, which is introduced in a position lower than the surface subject position, cannot bind the wh-subject as a variable. The position where ∃ is generated remains independent of whether the ∃-closure is triggered by low particles, such as le, or by high particles, such as the yes–no question particle ma. Therefore, the low peripheral particles le and eryi are still within the CP domain and thus higher than vP.
Mario Plebani and Laura Sciacovelli
References 1. International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Medical laboratories – Particular requirements for quality and competence. ISO 15189:2012. 2. Plebani M, Sciacovelli L, Chiozza ML, Panteghini M. Once upon a time: a tale of ISO 15189 accreditation. Clin Chem Lab Med 2015; 53(8): 1127–9. 3. Thelen MHM, Vanstapel FJLA, Kroupis C, Vukasovic I, Bousier G, Barrett E, et al. Flexible scope for ISO 15189 accreditation: a guidance preparated by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Working Group
of conditionals as topics”. Linguistics and Philosophy 37(5). 353–408. Ebert C. Ebert C. Hinterwimmer S. 2014 “A unified analysis of conditionals as topics” Linguistics and Philosophy 37 5 353 408 Endriss, C. 2009. Exceptional wide scope . Dordrecht: Springer. Endriss C. 2009 Exceptional wide scope Dordrecht Springer Endriss, C. and S. Hinterwimmer. 2008. “Direct and indirect aboutness topics”. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 55(3–4). 297–307. Endriss C. Hinterwimmer S. 2008 “Direct and
Th e article analysis the legal aspects of the problem of consumer bankruptcy within the Polish legal system. It covers the substantive and also procedural aspects of this legal instrument. Author describes the requirements and conditions for the consumer bankruptcy, scope and effects of this form of bankruptcy. Moreover he deals with the procedural aspects of the declaration of the personal consumer bankruptcy and discusses the practice of use of this institution in Poland.
This paper argues that copular sentences without an overt copular predicate do project a VP with a phonologically null head, hence so-called “verbless” copular sentences are illusory. Data from Standard Arabic, Spanish, Maltese, Russian, Jamaican Creole, Finnish and Hungarian copular sentences are used to support this claim. It is also claimed here that variation between the habitual property vs. ad hoc property interpretations (traditionally called the individual level vs. stage level distinction) of non-verbal predicates found in copular sentences is closely related to the choice of the copula in multiple BE-system languages. Whilst the current accounts explain this variation by introducing an abstract aspectual operator or an incorporated abstract preposition in the functional layer of the copular predicate, the present proposal derives these interpretive differences from the presence or absence of an OPalt alternative state operator, which can bind the temporal variable of non-verbal predicates in two ways.
Negation and temporal adverbials show scope ambiguity in copular sentences. They either take scope over the whole proposition or only over the non-verbal predicate. Such interpretive differences are demonstrated in Russian and Hungarian in Section 4 of this paper, however, they are taken to be valid cross-linguistically. These amibiguities cannot be explained under the “verbless copular sentence” account but fall out naturally from the “zero copula” analysis.
The “alternative state” approach can be extended to dream narratives and other nonveridical contexts, which serve as alternative triggers. The existing analyses have nothing to say about such contexts.
Anne-Marie Laslett, Orratai Waleewong, Isidore Obot, Vivek Benegal, Siri Hettige, Ramon Florenzano, Hoang Thi My Hanh, Vu Thi Minh Hanh, Girish N Rao and Robin Room
References Benegal, V., Girish, N., Gururaj, G., & Murthy, P. (2014). The Harm to Others from Drinking-India - Phase 1 Report on Alcohol’s Harm to Others (AH2O) project - WHO/THAI Health collaborative study: Scoping and Assessment study. Bangalore: National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences Callinan, S., Laslett, A.-M., Rekve, D., Room, R., Waleewong, O., Benegal, V., . . . Thamarangsi, T. (early view). Alcohol’s harm to others: An international collaborative project. International Journal of Alcohol and Drug
: an empirical study in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15 (18):1760–7. 4. DOUGLAS, A., GLEN, D. 2000. Integrated management systems in small and medium enterprises. Total Quality Management , 11 (4/5/6):S686–90. 5. KARAPETROVIC, S., CASADESÚS, M. 2009. Implementing environmental with other standardized management systems: scope, sequence, time and integration. Journal of cleaner production , pp. 533 – 540. 6. ISO 14001:2004. Environmental management systems. Requirements with guidance for use. 7. ISO 9001:2008. Quality management
Tomasz Borecki, Bogdan Brzeziecki, Edward Stępień and Roman Wójcik
The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.
The paper points out to the essential steps, as said by the authors, on the way to the improvement of now used forest inventory methods and calls attention to remote sensing technologies such as ortophotomaps and aerial lidar data.
The revisions proposed concern gathering information on: site conditions, species diversity, forest stock range as well as sample size and work scope on sampling areas. At the same time, in view of surveying the dynamics of forest change, there is recommended the use of permanent observation plots, especially in mountainous forests.