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professional artists and faculty members now conceived of as academics (e.g. Gielen, 2013 ; Jewesbury, 2009 ), on the parallels or discontinuities between the practices of scientific research and the arts (e.g. Klein, 2010 ; O'Riley, 2011; Rust, 2007 ; Sheikh, 2009 ; Sullivan, 2006 ) and on difficulties and tensions associated with the quality assessment of artistic research output (e.g. Biggs & Karlsson, 2011; Vanhaesebrouck, 2018 ; Wilson, 2016 ; Wissler, 2018). Whereas artistic research is now an institutional reality in many national contexts—embedded in funding
Component A in our study is the Norwegian Science Index, a bibliographic database in Cristin (Current Research Information System in Norway), which covers the scientific publication output at almost all Norwegian higher education institutions, research institutes and hospitals. Only publications which have officially qualified as scientific or scholarly according to specific criteria given above are included in the study. We use simple counts of unique publications, leaving aside the publication indicator in component B. A total of 45,092 scientific or scholarly
the scientific performance of a city. Can we find another method to measure the scientific performance of a city, a method that is not based on total (or any kind of) output? Does the geographical pattern of the global production of science change if we focus on quality rather than quantity regarding cities’ publication output?
According to Van Noorden (2010) , there are some alternatives to express the quality of a city’s scientific performance, for example, measuring the ‘average number of citations that a research paper from a city attracts’ or measuring the
. Online: http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/18/business/new-economy-many-midsize-companies-find-that-defensive-publishing-quick-cheap.html (accessed 26 May 2016)
The New York Times, 2015. Ireland, Accused of Giving Tax Breaks to Multinationals, Plans an Even Lower Rate. Online: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/14/business/international/ireland-tax-rate-breaks.html?_r=0 (accessed 4 August 2016)
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Ting Yue, Liying Yang, Per Ahlgren, Jielan Ding, Shuangqing Shi and Rainer Frietsch
could also say in the disciplinary structure, of each country can be identified.
For individual countries, scientific disciplinary structure could reflect the distribution of scientific funds over disciplines and the characteristics of Science & Technology (S&T) strategy. S&T input, as well as output, could be used to analyze disciplinary structure of countries. The analysis of disciplinary structure based on S&T input might reveal how resources and funds are distributed over disciplines ( Julio, 1998 ; Shibayama, 2011 ; Zhu, 2006 ; Wu, 2015 ). For S&T output
The goal of this paper is the creation of kinematic systems of the cardan shaft in the CAD/CAM/CAE system CATIA V5 and analysis of three cases of assembly to determine upon which, angular accelerations had been observed between the input driving shaft, central cardan shaft and output driven shaft. The scientific result of this paper was to confirm the presence of cardan error and how this type of error can be successfully eliminated.
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